Torque ripple reduction

Title: SPEED CONTROL OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR WITH TORQUE RIPPLE REDUCTION USING FRACTIONAL ORDER PID CONTROLLER AND CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM. Language: English; Authors: PRASAD, E. SHIVA1. RAM, B. V. SANKER2; Source: Journal on Electrical Engineering; Document  Exhaust options - RZV-Voreifel ripple factor definition The torque ripple is the important restriction affecting the promotion and application of switched reluctance motor, the analytic expressions to calculate switched reluctance motors tangential force and radial force are derived in this paper, based on analyzing the cause of switched reluctance motor vibration and torque ripple.

effect of rotor barrier pitch angle on torque ripple production - Core

NSF Award Search: Award#1703641 - Low-Torque-Ripple The design procedure for the robust torque profile T' proceeds along the same lines as given in Chap. 8. The details are rather straightforward and are omitted for brevity. 11.5 Torque Ripple Reduction for BLDC Motors An adaptive variable structure controller (see Chap. 15) may be used to reduce the torque ripple in BLDC  5 Oct 2017 New magnet shape for reducing torque ripple in an outer-rotor permanent-magnet machine. Yusuf ВЁOZO˘GLU. в€—. Department of Control and Automation Technology, Vocational School of Technical Science, Л™Istanbul University,. Л™Istanbul, Turkey. Received: 20.02.2017. •. Accepted/Published Online: 29.05.REDUCTION OF THE TORQUE RIPPLE IN SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MACHINES. CHALLENGE. A synschronous reluctance motor is a syncrounous machine, which typically consists of a rotor and a stator. The stator is characterized by a certain number of slots and a certain winding topology, which is needed to  daisy cottage designs ripple blanket 3 Jan 2018 High torque ripple is inherent in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) because of the motor's doubly salient structure and highly non-uniform torque and magnetisation characteristics. Direct torque control (DTC) for SRM is one of the torque ripple reduction strategies which gets wide attention for its  SENSORLESS FLUX REGION MODIFICATION OF DTC CONTROLLED IM FOR TORQUE RIPPLE REDUCTION. Yavuz USER, Kayhan GULEZ, Sukru OZEN. 959 288 

1. BLDC Ripple Torque Reduction via. Modified Sinusoidal PWM. Neil Wang. 2. Why BLDC Motors? Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Characteristics. • High Torque Density, Compact. • Very Low Maintenance. • Lower EMI than Brush DC. • Low Rotor Inertia. • Better Cooling Design - Can Easily be Sealed. • Safer in Explosive 15 Jul 2013 Skewing is one of the most widely used methods to reduce the torque ripples. However, it was reported that the on-load torque ripple was not always reduced by the conventional skewing, in which the skewing angle is one period of torque ripple. This paper proposes the way of improving the skewing to  This paper proposes the new conceptual design method for minimizing the torque ripple of the interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor. Index Terms—Design optimization, hybrid analysis method, interior permanent magnet motor, torque ripple minimization . torque reduction design of interior permanent magnet motor is.Passivity-based adaptive sliding mode speed control of switched reluctance motor drive considering torque ripple reduction. MMN Isfahani, SM Saghaian-Nejad, A Rashidi, HA Zarchi. Electric Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2011 IEEE International, 1480 …, 2011. 13, 2011. Multiple reference frame control of  android ripple effect example Direct Torque with Fuzzy logic Torque Ripple Reduction based The kings and queens of couture – and their most dazzling dance

the torque ripple in SRM. Each of the methods described in details. Different techniques are compared and the best and most efficient one is introduced. Keywords: switched reluctance motors, torque ripple reduction. 1. Introduction. Switched reluctance motor (SRM) is a doubly- salient synchronous motor with concentric.Abstract-In this paper, a pulsation current optimization control method is proposed for reducing torque ripple in brushless dc drives using Genetic Algorithm based Proportional Integral control (GA-PI). In general torque ripple occur due to pulsation current and input voltage in the brushless dc drive during commutation  The dc is getting out of controltas force – Hashcoins.info how to build a litecoin mining rig 2017 Torque Ripple Reduction using Field Oriented. Control(FOC)-A Comparison Between BLDCM and PMSM. Sumitra. K. Prof. M. K. Giridharan. MCA Student. MCA Student. Department of Computer Applications. Department of Computer Applications. IFET College of Engineering, Villupuram. IFET College of Engineering,  Title, Torque ripple reduction of an 8/6 switched reluctance machine / by R.H.S. Vrenken ; publ. of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE). Department of Electrical Engineering ; Chair: Electromechanics and Power Electronics ; supervisors: J.L. Duarte, C.G.E. Wijnands and S. Bervoets. Author, R.H.S. Vrenken [Author].

10 Feb 2011 lower flux ripple, lower harmonic current and lower EMI noise reduction as compared to. HDTC. Only two hysteresis controllers, current sensors and built-in counters microcontroller are required to achieve torque control. Torque ripple and harmonic noise in PMSM are due to many factors such as structural.However, applying only one voltage vector during the whole control period is not optimal in terms of reducing the torque ripple. Davari et al. decreased the amount of torque ripple by calculating the optimal weighting factor, and the control period is divided into two intervals. Besides, Yongchang Zhang and Yang proposed  1 Jul 2017 A major problem in switched reluctance motor is torque ripple, which causes undesirable acoustic noise and vibration. This work focuses on reducing the undesirable torque ripple in 6/4-pole three-phase switched reluctance motor by geometry modification and using control technique. The proposed SR motor has a nonlinear model and torque ripple is a prevalent disadvantage re- sulting in acoustic noise and rotor vibration. Hence reduction of such problems is an important subject in SRMs [4, 7, 8]. Motor structure makes its characteristic nonlinear and the simulation results of linear control are not acceptable [13, 9],. ripple junction doctor who Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol.20, No.3, 2012, cO T ГњBЛ™ITAK doi:10.3906/elk-1007-596. Reduction of torque ripple in DTC for induction motor using input-output feedback linearization. Sebti BELKACEM. в€—. , Farid NACERI, Rachid ABDESSEMED. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Batna, Batna-ALGERIA. Model predictive control has emerged as a powerful control tool in the field of power converter and drive's system. In this article, a weighting factor optimization for reducing the torque ripple of inductionmachine fed by an indirect matrix converter is introduced and presented. Therefore, an optimization method is adopted 

IET Digital Library: Torque-ripple reduction of SRM using optimised

Extensive efforts have been conducted on the improvement of torque ripple in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The purpose of this paper is to estimate initial on time of pulse-width modulation (PWM) and turn-off angle using the motor speed and rotor angle by fuzzy logic.Certain investigation on torque ripple reduction techniques of Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor with Torque Ripple The minimization of torque ripple in PWM AC drives has been presented by Basu. He proposed a. PWM technique for minimizing the RMS torque ripple in inverter-fed induction motor drives. A commutation time control for torque ripple reduction of BLDC motors has been presented by Oh. The proposed method is based on  broad ripple park indianapolis in Abstract: In this paper, a direct load angle control (DLA) method of a three phase induction machine is proposed to minimize torque ripple and flux ripple while maintaining constant switching frequency. In this comparision between the DLA and DTC. In DLA control drawback of switching frequency is overcome by using SVM  For flux ripple reduction, conventional hysteresis-based controller is replaced by simple dithering technique. The duty cycle calculation unit is implemented to operate on each selected vector with the aim of torque ripple RMS minimization. The increase of switching frequency in ST-DTC because of delay in torque and flux 

REPUBLIC OF IRAQ. MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Torque Ripple Reduction Based Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drives A Thesis Submitted to the College of Engineering University of Baghdad inISA Trans. 2017 Sep;70:502-511. doi: 10.1016/2017.05.006. Epub 2017 May 17. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization. Shirvani Boroujeni M(1), Markadeh GRA(2), Soltani J(3). Author information: (1)Shahrekord University, Iran. Electronic address:  Analytical Modeling and Torque Ripple Reduction of Variable Flux Abstract—In this paper by using the port-controlled Hamiltonian. (PCH) systems theory, a full-order nonlinear controlled model is first developed. Then a nonlinear passivity-based robust adaptive control. (PBRAC) of switched reluctance motor in the presence of external disturbances for the purpose of torque ripple reduction  physical ripple coin reduction methods leave the suppression of cogging torque to the motor designers, typically by skewing the stator slots. In place of a speed loop, Qian et al. [8] use an external force sensor as feedback to compensate for torque ripple at higher frequencies. This method suppresses all forms of torque ripple, but the required  ABSTRACT : This paper mockles the problem of high torque ripple in current controlled switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. Torque ripple reduction below the base speed of the motor is studied through adjustment of both turn-on and turnoff angles. A multi objective optimization function is used to determine the proper 

Torque Ripple Reduction of Brushless DC Motor on Current. Prediction and Overlapping Commutation. Abstract. Based on the analysis of the principle of torque ripple with commutation time for brushless DC motor, this paper proposes a method to restrain commutation torque ripple. This method is an improved predictive construction. The proposed concept can be implemented to. Communication Torque Ripple Reduction in Brushless DC. Motor using current control technique by using. Matlab/Simulink software. Keywords: BLDC Motor, Modified, SEPIC Converter,. Commutation Torque Ripple, Dc Link Voltage Control. I. INTRODUCTION. Corresponding Author: n, ha, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sri. Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore, India. E-mail: adhav14@, birundha001@ 61. Torque Ripple Reduction in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using Fuzzy Logic. Control.A SIMPLE METHOD OF TORQUE RIPPLE REDUCTION. FOR DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF PWM INVERTER-. FED INDUCTION MACHINE DRIVES. Sanda Victorinne PAЕўURCД‚, Aurelian SARCA, Mircea COVRIG. University Politechnica of Bucharest, Departament of Electrical Engineering, sanda@,  ripple xrp long term 12 Dec 2011 This paper presents the design and implementation of neural network controller for reducing torque ripples in brushlessDC (BLDC) motor drive with trapezoidal back-emf. The performances of the proposed neural networkcontroller are compared with the corresponding fuzzy PI controller and conventional  Low-speed/high-torque hydraulic motors eliminate gearboxes - reducing maintenance, meeting space constraints, and lowering costs. Low-speed/high-torque (LSHT) motors are one of the more cost-effective and dependable parts of a hydraulic system. Low speed may bring about torque ripple or speed flutter.

Torque Ripple Reduction Using Torque Compensation Effect of an Asymmetric Rotor Design in IPM Motor. Yong-Suk Hwang, Myung-Hwan Yoon, Jin-Cheol Park, and Jung-Pyo Hong*. Department of Automotive Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea. (Received 14 February 2017, Received in final form 26 Axial motor design 13 Sep 2016 Available online: Page | 95. Harmonics and Torque Ripple Reduction in BLDC. Drive using Multilevel Inverter. RAPRASAD. M-tech Student Scholar. Department of EEE,. Sarada Institute of Science Technology& Management. Srikakulam (Dt); A.P, India.Department of Electrical Engineering Southern Taiwan University. Robot and Servo Drive Lab. Torque Ripple Reduction in BLDC Torque Motor With Nonideal Back EMF. Jiancheng Fang, Haitao Li, and Bangcheng Han IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 27, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2012 4630-4637. jp morgan chase ethereum exhibit remarkable torque ripple reduction with the help of MPC. As a result, the proposed strategy is proved to be effective in minimizing the torque ripples for MC-based PMSM drives. Keywords. Direct torque control (DTC), matrix converter (MC), permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM),. Model predictive control  Optimization is based on mathematical programming approach. A semi-analytical sensitivity analysis is compared with the finite difference. Thanks to this approach, the design time is much shorter than that required by an approach of trial and error used by industry. The reduction of the torque ripple is about 70 /% with 

rectifier because it improves power factor. Rectified DC output is fed to inverter to convert it to AC. They are broadly. Better DC Bus Utilization and Torque Ripple Reduction by using SVPWM for VSI fed Induction Motor Drive. K .Gopala Krishna, T. Kranthi Kumar, and P. Venugopal Rao. International Journal of Computer and 30 Jun 2017 The different filtering options produce different levels of torque ripple reduction. Notch Filter, ARF and MAF obtain the best results and there is a trade-off between the filter implementation complexity, bandwidth, overshoot and the torque ripple reduction. Simulations and experiments using a 2.5 kW PMSG  Abstract—In this paper, a modified direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous machine is proposed, which enables important torque and flux ripple reduction by using voltage vectors with variable amplitude and angle. Conventional. DTC presents some drawbacks, including large torque ripple, variable Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current  kraft ripple cups Torque Ripple Reduction of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous. Motor Using Harmonic Injected Current. Geun-Ho Lee. 1. , Sung-Il Kim. 1. , Jung-Pyo Hong. 1. , and Ji-Hyung Bahn. 2. Department of Automotive Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea. Power Transformer Technology Development  This article presents the effect of different torque ripple reduction methods on the average torque and back-emf harmonics. Two methods are compared. One is skewing the stator of the machine and the other method is using a fractional slot winding for the machine. It has been shown that both methods reduce the torque 

2 Jul 2010 Abstract— In this paper, the authors propose a novel control strategy of torque ripple reduction in hybrid vehicles. The. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) ripples are reduced by an active filter and a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. (PMSM). This electric motor is mounted on the crankshaft in.23 Aug 2017 However, the additional torque sensors are costly in most application. An analytical model of torque is derived from magnetic coenergy by finite element analysis in [10]. A feedforward torque controller is then introduced for torque ripple reduction and maximum torque per ampere. Due to the finite element  This paper presents a comprehensive analysis on torque ripples of brushless dc motor drives in conduction region and commutation region. A new method for reducing the torque ripple in brushless dc motors with a single current sensor has been proposed by adding the step-down BUCK converter that regulates the Experimenting with drilling and color options - Guayllabamba dewalt xrp battery vs lithium ion Title: Predictive Direct Torque Control for Flux and Torque Ripple Reduction. Authors: Beerten, Jef Г— Verveckken, Jan · Driesen, Johan #. Issue Date: Jan-2010. Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Series Title: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics vol:57 issue:1 pages:404-412. Abstract: In this  INTERPOL – Hashcoins.info

Torque Ripple Reduction in BLDC Torque Motor With Nonideal

Torque ripple is an effect seen in many electric motor designs, referring to a periodic increase or decrease in output torque as the motor shaft rotates. It is measured as the difference in maximum and minimum torque over one complete revolution, generally expressed as a percentage.23 Feb 2017 Effects of current harmonic order, amplitude and initial angle on average torque and torque ripple are investigated based on the mathematic model. Desired harmonic parameters are obtained from the analysis, in order to suppress the torque ripple as much as possible. Further, a method for reducing the  Torque Ripple Reduction in Sensorless PMSM Drives. Antti Piippo and Jorma Luomi. Power Electronics Laboratory. Helsinki University of Technology. P.O. Box 3000, FI-02015 TKK, Finland. Abstract— The paper proposes a method for the compensation of the torque ripple that is caused by motor unidealities in sensorless mentioned on torque ripple reduction among these [1] presents a simple technique to minimize torque ripple based on the control of the sum of the square of the phase currents. Paper [2] proposes a Fuzzy-Logic-. Based turn-off angle compensator for torque ripple reduction in a switched reluctance motor. The turn-off angle  ripple infinity scarf crochet pattern In this paper using combination of two separated ideas the torque ripple of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) is reduced. These two ideas are rotor PM segmented and modifying the rotor structure based on pole-arc ratio of flux barrier optimization. In addition the torque ripple due to the reluctance  7 Nov 2013 commutation torque ripple occurs because of changeover of load current from one phase to another at every 60 electrical degrees. This paper presents techniques for diminishing the harmonics and torque ripples in sensor Brushless DC motor. This torque ripple reduction techniques based on voltage.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, torque ripple coefficient, fuzzy logic control (FLC), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference Palavras-chave: motor de relutГўncia comutada, coeficiente de ripple de torque, controle lГіgico de nГєmeros difusos (FLC), sistema de approaches for reducing the torque pulsations: one method is to fanusie – Hashcoins.info 13 Jul 2017 Abstract. Servo systems play an important role in industrial automation. A servo system denotes a closed loop controlled system capable of tracking required demands. One way of achieving high performance servo drive systems is to apply the closed loop control of an a.c. permanent magnet synchronous The experimentally-obtained characteristics are used for finding the optimal solution for torque ripple reduction. FEA is used to investigate the accurate EM force and its radial and tangential components using volume integration method. The proposed global optimization method can give a precise solution for this non-linear  xrp tracker Abstract: In this thesis, advanced control methods are presented for torque ripple reduction and performance improvement in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. Firstly, a comparative evaluation of power electronic converters including asymmetric, N+1, C dump, split AC, and split DC converters is presented for  10 Jul 2012 Abstract. Direct torque control(DTC) of an induction motor fed by a voltage source inverter is a simple scheme that does not need long computation time and can be implanted without mechanical speed sensors and is insensitive to parameter variations. In principle, the motor terminal voltages and currents 

Abstract – In direct torque control, the selection of an applied voltage vector is based on the measured parameters at the beginning of the sampling period. The delay between the measurement and the application of the voltage vector is the origin of an extra torque ripple. In this paper, a new predictive controller is proposed Axial motor design direct torque controlled induction motor drive for torque ripple vibration of the motor frame occurs. Since the vibration is periodical in phase with the rotation of the motor, the repetitive control can be applied to the reduction of the vibration. 2.2 Extraction of Specific Component of Vibration by. Fourier Transform. The periodical torque ripple occurs synchronously with the motor rotation. broad ripple hostel Extending Switching Frequency for Torque Ripple. Reduction Utilizing a Constant Frequency Torque. Controller in DTC of Induction Motors. Auzani Jidin†, Nik Rumzi Nik Idris в€—, Abdul Halim Mohd Yatimв€—, Tole Sutiknoв€—в€—, and Malik E. Elbulukв€—в€—в€—. † Dept. of Power Electronics and Drives, FKE, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia  97. Reduction of Torque Ripple in DTC for Induction. Motor Using Input–Output Feedback Linearization. Sebti Belkacem1, Farid Naceri1, Rachid Abdessemed2. Abstract: Direct torque control (DTC) is known to produce fast response and robust control in AC adjustable-speed drives. However, in the steady-state operation 

This paper gives an overview to the principle of direct torque control (DTC) of induction machines (IM) drives. A summary to the various techniques of torque ripple reduction followed by a proposed simple method to reduce the torque ripple is also presented. Modeling and design methodology of this proposed method are 8 Sep 2017 A motor drive system and method for controlling an electric motor. The motor drive system includes a plurality of phase lines switchably connected to the electric motor, a plurality of controllable switches, and a controller. The controller is communicatively coupled to the plurality of controllable switches and  ripple of IPMSM [2]. The partly enlarged air gap length made by unequal rotor out diameter and stator core cutting is introduced in interior permanent magnet brushless DC motor (IPM BLDC). Adding holes in rotor core is used for good solution that both the cogging torque and the torque ripple reduction is extremely low [3].paper presents new contributions to the minimization of torque ripple in SRM using an enhanced direct instantaneous torque control. Torque ripple is reduced by adding a PI controller before the Index Terms -- Switched reluctance motor, torque ripple, demagnetization state, reducing the torque value, and the incoming  css ripple effect BLDC Ripple Torque Reduction via Modified. Sinusoidal PWM. Shucheng Wang. Abstract — This paper introduces a BLDC fan motor driver system using modified sinusoidal PWM (SPWM). The driver board is assembled in the motor to minimize system size. Based on the signal from the hall position sensor on the board,. A Novel Method for Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction of. Four-Switch, Three-Phase Brushless DC Motor Drive. A. Halvaei-Niasar*, A. Vahedi** and H. Moghbelli***. Abstract: This paper presents an original study on the generated torque ripples of phase commutation in the Four-Switch, Three-Phase Inverter (FSTPI) 

Torque Ripple Reduction in Three-level. SVM Based Direct Torque Control of. Induction Motor. Abstract In this paper new direct torque control scheme is proposed which aids in alleviating the torque ripple using space vector modulation based multilevel diode clamped inverter. Direct Torque Control (DTC) is one of.Abstract : This paper presents torque ripple reduction of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) by using fuzzy speed controller. In this purpose, current control is applied with fuzzy speed controller. Fuzzy controller adjusts value of reference current to keep speed constant. In this study, the nonlinear model of SRM is used and  Offers H 23 PCC W SlipAbstract - Brushless DC motor torque ripple reduction has been the main issue in servo driving systems in which the speeds of fluctuation, vibration, and acoustic noise should be minimized. Most methods for suppressing torque ripples usually require Fourier series, analysis, finite element analysis or least-mean-square  ripple kent england Reduction of Torque Ripple in Direct Torque Control of Induction. Machines by Use of all Voltage Vectors of Matrix Converters. Babu1 , Sadik Ahamad Khan2. P.G Scholar , sor. Abstract-- This paper proposes the use of all voltage vectors of matrix converters to reduce the electromagnetic  25 Oct 2014 Maximum torque. 175 Nm. Nominal power. 25 kW. Nominal speed. 4500 1/min. Torque Ripple Reduction in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with. Concentrated Windings and Pre-Wound Coils. J. Richnow1. , D. Gerling1, P. Stenzel2,. 1 Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, D-85577 

3 Aug 2010 Methods and systems are provided for reducing torque ripple in an electric motor. A method comprises receiving a torque command and determining a cancellation current command based on the torque command. The method further comprises generating a harmonic cancellation command based on the This paper shows an analysis of torque ripple reduction in modified DTC algorithm by using multiple voltage vectors with the appropriate multilevel hysteresis controller. A short theor Model Predictive Torque Ripple Reduction with. Weighting Factor Optimization Fed by an Indirect. Matrix Converter. Muslem Uddin,1 Saad Mekhilef,1 Marizan Mubin,2 Marco Rivera,3 and Jose Rodriguez4. 1Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electrical Engineering, SELECT PAPERS FROM MOMAG 2010. Control strategies applied for reducing the vibration and torque ripple of a special Switched Reluctance Motor. D. A. P. CorreaI; W. M. da SilvaI; S. I. NabetaII; I. E. ChabuII. ICentro TecnolГіgico da Marinha em SГЈo Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2468, Cidade UniversitГЎria, SГЈo Paulo,  usual suspects broad ripple Journal of Magnetics 17(3), 200-205 (2012) в“’ 2012 Journal of Magnetics. A Simplified Torque Ripple Reduction using the Current Shaping of the Flux Switched Reluctance Motor. Heon-Hyeong Lee. 1. , Qi Wang. 1. , Se-Joo Kim. 2. , Woongchul Choi. 1. , and Geun-Ho Lee. 1*. Ico rating 5e - Dragon ball z icon

Torque Ripple Reduction Methods for an Interior Permanent Magnet

Call: 0413-4205444, +91 9566355386, 99625 88976. Web : / Mail : projects@ Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction in. BLDC Motor Using Modified SEPIC. Converter and Three-level NPC Inverter. Introduction: Brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) 
Help with Gearing build26 May 2016 A novel modular arc-linear flux-switching permanent-magnet motor (MAL-FSPM) used for scanning system instead of reduction gearboxes and kinematic mechanisms is proposed and researched in this paper by the finite element method (FEM). The MAL-FSPM combines characteristics of flux-switching