Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. .. seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. .. four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. . Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight . Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars .. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by .. four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. Arno Hazekamp with expertise in: Phytochemistry. in children, CBD is now sold and used to treat a wide range of medical conditions and lifestyle diseases. to get a deeper understanding of cannabis effects in laboratory and clinical studies. All isolates were shown to be more than 90% pure by gas chromatography.
is ensu weight Pure by separated molecular Pure laboratory under CBD conditions, Spectrum’s Isolate,
Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide.
Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban.
Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young.
Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction.
This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. Hemp Cannabis sativa is an important fiber crop, and native cultivars exist widely throughout China. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 27 important Chinese native hemp cultivars, by using inter-simple sequence repeats ISSR and chromosome markers.
We determined the following chromosome formulas: The results of our ISSR analysis revealed the genetic relationships among the 27 cultivars; these relationships were analyzed by using the unweighted pair-group method based on DNA polymorphism. Our results revealed that all of the native cultivars showed considerable genetic diversity. At a genetic distance of 0. All of the investigated hemp cultivars represent relatively primitive types; moreover, the genetic distances show a geographical distribution, with a small amount of regional hybridity.
Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis , and the obtained values were compared with the control.
In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa. Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions.
Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex.
Among these compounds are terpenoids, which are not produced exclusively by cannabis plants, so other plant species must share many of the enzymes involved in their metabolism. In the present work, 23, transcripts from the canSat3 reference transcriptome were scanned for evolutionarily conserved protein domains and annotated in accordance with their predicted molecular functions. A total of evolutionarily conserved genes encoding enzymes presumably involved in terpenoid metabolism are described, together with their expression profiles in different cannabis plant tissues at different developmental stages.
The resource presented here will aid future investigations on terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast cp genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C.
To verify the position of C. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. Cannabis smoke condensate III: Cannabis sativa is a well-known recreational drug and, as such, a controlled substance of which possession and use are illegal in most countries of the world.
Due to the legal constraints on the possession and use of C. Interest in the medicinal uses of this plant has, however, increased in the last decades. The methods of administration for medicinal purposes are mainly through oral ingestion, smoking, and nowadays also inhalation through vaporization. During this study the commercially available Volcano vaporizing device was compared with cannabis cigarette smoke.
The cannabis smoke and vapor obtained at different temperatures were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC. In addition, different quantities of cannabis material were also tested with the vaporizer.
The worst ratio of cannabinoids: Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites. CoA ligase 4CL catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase CHS catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production.
This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health.
Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues.
The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves mainly flavonoids and roots mainly lignin was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data. Early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic steps in Cannabis sativa: A Vademecum for Molecular Biologists. Full Text Available In plants there is no universal protocol for RNA extraction, since optimizations are required depending on the species, tissues and developmental stages.
One such example is bast fibres, long extraxylary cells characterized by a thick cellulosic cell wall. Given the economic importance of bast fibres, which are used in the textile sector, as well as in biocomposites as green substitutes of glass fibres, it is desirable to better understand their development from a molecular point of view.
This knowledge favours the development of biotechnological strategies aimed at improving specific properties of bast fibres. To be able to perform high-throughput analyses, such as, for instance, transcriptomics of bast fibres, RNA extraction is a crucial and limiting step.
We here detail a protocol enabling the rapid extraction of high quality RNA from the bast fibres of textile hemp , Cannabis sativa L. Marijuana Cannabis sativa L. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats STRs could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples.
The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C. A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype C. Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA 0. This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive 0. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C.
The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples.
Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD.
The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD.
In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.
Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from soils using Cannabis sativa. Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa , with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation. Cannabis and Breast feeding. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women.
The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.
Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa , used both as a recreational drug or as medicine.
Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.
Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope. Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology.
The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.
After having abolished the prohibition of the cultivation of the species Cannabis sativa L. In this review, an introduction to the botany of the hemp plant and the current law situation in Germany and the European Union is presented. A survey of the analytic techniques used to verify compliance with the guidance values is given a Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept. The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel cellulosic bioethanol and biochemical succinic acid production from industrial hemp Cannabis sativa L.
Two types of pretreatments were studied dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that kg of EtOH and kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L.
In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions.
Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated.
This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. How to store plant tissues in the absence of liquid nitrogen? Ethanol preserves the RNA integrity of Cannabis sativa stem tissues. Full Text Available The preservation of intact RNA is a limiting step when gene expression profiling is performed using field-collected plant material. The use of liquid nitrogen ensures the optimal preservation of RNA, however it is not always practical, especially if the plant material has to be sampled in remote locations.
Ethanol is known to preserve DNA in plant tissues even after a long storage period and here its suitability to preserve the RNA of textile hemp cortical tissues was tested. We show that in all the cases the extracted RNA is intact. We finally analyze hemp stem tissues stored in ethanol for 1 month and demonstrate the preservation of the tissue structure, particularly of bast fibres.
Elemental characterization of marijuana cannabis sativa as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients. Sample sizes of roughly mg irradiated for five minutes short irradiation and six hours long irradiation , with decay times of 7 minutes, 10, minutes and 26, minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes short-lived nuclides , 1, minutes medium-lived nuclides and 36, minutes long-lived nuclides yielded detection limits between 0.
For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La.
This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis The type of hemp cultivation organic or conventional did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential.
Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical.
Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm.
Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.
New food allergies in a European non-Mediterranean region: Allergy to fruit and vegetables exhibit geographic variation regarding the severity of symptoms and depending on the sensitization profile of the patient. These sensitization profiles and routes remain incompletely understood.
Cannabis is a very popular drug and derived from Cannabis sativa , a plant containing lipid transfer proteins LTP also known as important allergens in plant and fruit allergies. In this study we sought to elucidate a potential connection between C. A case-control study involving 21 patients consulting for plant food allergies. Twelve patients were cannabis allergic and 9 had a pollen or latex allergy without cannabis allergy.
Testing for cannabis IgE implied measurement of specific IgE, skin testing and basophil activation tests. Allergen component analysis was performed with a microarray technique. Plant food allergy in patients with documented cannabis allergy had more severe reactions than patients without cannabis allergy and frequently implied fruits and vegetables that are not observed in a birch pollen-related food syndrome.
With the exception of 1 patient with cannabis allergy, all were sensitized to nonspecific ns -LTP. Our data suggest that illicit cannabis abuse can result in cannabis allergy with sensitization to ns-LTP. This sensitization might result in various plant-food allergies. Additional collaborative studies in different geographical areas are needed to further elucidate on this hypothesis. Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa.
In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron. Application of Hemp Hurds in the Preparation of Biocomposites. Hemp is a controversial bio-product with promising performance as a sustainable building material. The fact that hemp is an organic, natural product makes it highly relevant in the present reality of global pollution and struggle for coping with planetary warming.
The construction sector is among the leading industries when it comes to energy consumption, release of CO2; it is responsible for great amounts of waste and pollution. The research and implementation of sustainable building materials is a crucial necessity in the modern times.
Hemp Cannabis sativa is an agricultural crop that can be used as a building material in combination with conventional or alternative binders. Hemp composites have many advantages as a building material, but it is not load-bearing and must be used in combination with a loadbearing wooden frame.
Despite this disadvantage, hemp composite materials offer several of appropriate properties, namely: Properties of hemp composites are characterized by mechanical and physical methods. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L. Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee CCTN regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa , indica variety.
The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp Cannabis sativa L. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulfonic acid radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF.
Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Anxiety, Cannabis toxicity, Cortex, Memory, Hippocampus. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice. Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum.
Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice.
Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days after starting cannabis injection.
Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. Glucose in brain decreased by The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA Illegal cannabis Cannabis sativa L. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources Tsukuba Division received between January 1, and March 31, were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: Top three inquiries were 1: Characteristics of cannabis , namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage. Sequence-characterized amplified region SCAR markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod i.
The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa. Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases.
The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil NSO on cannabis -induced moto-cognitive defects. The Morris water maze MWM paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis -like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons.
The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis -induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes.
The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home.
The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated in Ethiopia. The main objective of this study is to determine the level of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L.
After proper sample pretreatment, the volumes of reagents used, digestion temperature and digestion time were optimized and using the optimized conditions the levels of metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn was with the highest concentration among trace metals. The results indicate that the content of Pb and Cd exceeds the permissible amount for medicinal plants which form the raw materials for the finished products set by World Health Organization WHO.
Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L.
Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids.
Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle.
In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity. In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C.
We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP assay for the rapid identification of C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. Marihuana in response to enviromental pollution. Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution.
Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution. Enhancement of metal loid s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L. DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl.
Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma.
Cannabis -based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma B was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group.
Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis -based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma. Full Text Available Objective s: Evaluation of a loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification. Marijuana Cannabis sativa is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats STRs could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases.
A real-time PCR quantification method for C. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus hops which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases.
The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year.
Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations.
Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.
Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically.
It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher P Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria.
Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. The use and misuse of C. The result showed that The result also shows that at least The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C.
Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum -sensitized patients. Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C.
A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: Sensitivity to Cannabis , tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects and 1 negative had positive skin tests to C. Specific IgE to C. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed.
Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality.
Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol. Validity of diagnoses, procedures , and laboratory data in Japanese administrative data.
Validation of recorded data is a prerequisite for studies that utilize administrative databases. Between November and February , we conducted chart reviews of patients hospitalized between April and March in four middle-sized acute-care hospitals in Shizuoka, Kochi, Fukuoka, and Saga Prefectures and used them as reference standards. The sensitivity and specificity of DPC data in identifying 16 diseases and 10 common procedures were identified. When limited to primary diagnoses, the sensitivity and specificity were The validity of diagnoses and procedure records in the DPC data and laboratory results in the SS-MIX data was high in general, supporting their use in future studies.
Production and hosting by Elsevier B. The methods rely on the use of detergents that are compatible with most non-disposable tools in a laboratory.
Modified extraction procedure for gas-liquid chromatography applied to the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Chloroform and ether commonly are used as solvents to extract metabolic organic acids for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography in the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Because these solvents are potentially hazardous to personnel, modified extraction procedures involving the use of a safer solvent, methyl tert-butyl ether were developed which remained both simple to perform and effective for organism identification.
Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water. Several chemical concepts to the extraction of a water pollutant OPC octylphenoxyacetic acid is presented.
As an introduction to the laboratory experiment, a discussion on endocrine disrupters is conducted to familiarize the student with the background of the experiment and to explain the need for the extraction and quantitation of the OPC which….
This laboratory is particularly useful for introductory students as the analytes that are separated are highly colored dye molecules. This allows students to track into which phase each analyte…. Procedure for contact electrical resistance measurements as developed for use at Sandia National Laboratories. Military Specifications call out general procedures and guidelines for conducting contact resistance measurements on chemical conversion coated panels.
This paper deals with a test procedure developed at Sandia National Laboratories used to conduct contact electrical resistance on non-chromated conversion coated test panels. Development and characterization of a green procedure for apigenin extraction from Scutellaria barbata D. This green procedure yielded Moreover, the extraction time required by the USC-CO 2 procedure , which used milder conditions, was approximately 1.
Furthermore, the theoretical solubility of apigenin in the supercritical fluid system was obtained from the USC-CO 2 dynamic extraction curves and was in good agreement with the calculated values for the three empirical density-based models. The results demonstrated that the selected model allowed the evaluation of the extraction rate and extent of USC-CO 2 extraction.
Medical imaging using animal models for human diseases has been utilized for decades; however, until recently, medical imaging of diseases induced by high-consequence pathogens has not been possible. Multiple imaging modalities including computed tomography CT , magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography are available to researchers for these evaluations.
The focus of this article is to describe the workflow for safely obtaining a CT image of a live guinea pig in an ABSL-4 facility. These procedures include animal handling, anesthesia, and preparing and monitoring the animal until recovery from sedation. We will also discuss preparing the imaging equipment, performing quality checks, communication methods from "hot side" containing pathogens to "cold side," and moving the animal from the holding room to the imaging suite.
Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Azadirachta indica Neem seed extracts are known to activate the local cell-mediated immune reactions after a single intrauterine administration, leading to a long term reversible block of fertility.
In order to identify and characterize the active fraction responsible for this activity, neem seeds were extracted by both mechanical expression and solvent extraction using a range of polar to non-polar solvents which yielded 3 broad fractions.
The mechanically expressed oil was fractionated using different approaches and studied for antifertility activity. The hexane extract and a corresponding column fraction showed potent and reproducible antifertility activity. Other fractions were less stable with regard to reproducibility of effects and composition. It is our conclusion that for subsequent fractionation to reach the last active fraction, the hexane extract is the most useful starting material.
The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.
This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory HSSL.
Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.
Independent laboratory 's procedures. This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: Extraction of DNA from forensic-type sexual assault specimens using simple, rapid sonication procedures. Sonication procedures for the extraction of DNA from forensic-type semen specimens have been developed, which, when compared to currently utilized sperm DNA extraction techniques, are simple, rapid and result in comparable DNA yields.
Sperm DNA extraction by sonication was performed on whole semen, seminal stains, buccal swabs and post-coital specimens.
Ultrasound disruption of sperm cells and their ultimate release of cellular DNA has been conducted in the presence of sperm wash buffers followed by organic extraction or Chelex with little or no compromise to DNA quality, quantity or amplifiability. Sperm DNA extracted by optimum sonication procedures was used for forensic HLA DQ alpha typing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis without any adverse effects on typing results.
Purpose To investigate the effects of lenticule creation and subsequent corneal lenticule extraction on corneal deformation parameters during small incision lenticule extraction SMILE procedure. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 18 eyes of 10 patients Repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons was performed to investigate changes following each step of the procedure.
Results All surgical procedures were uneventful. A significant difference was detected among the three time points pre-operation, post-lenticule creation and post lenticule extraction for AT1 P 0. The changes may be caused predominantly by stromal lenticule extraction.
Changes in corneal deformation parameters after lenticule creation and extraction during small incision lenticule extraction SMILE procedure. To investigate the effects of lenticule creation and subsequent corneal lenticule extraction on corneal deformation parameters during small incision lenticule extraction SMILE procedure.
In this prospective study, 18 eyes of 10 patients All surgical procedures were uneventful. The changes may be caused predominantly by stromal lenticule extraction , while lenticule creation with femtosecond laser may not. In this case-based laboratory , an instrument sales person attempts to convince an analysis laboratory of the virtues of supercritical fluid extraction SFE. The sales person deals directly with the laboratory technicians who will make the decision.
Arrangements are made to have SFE instrumentation brought into the laboratory for a comparative…. Laboratory procedure for estimating residue dynamics of xenobiotic contaminants in a freshwater food chain.
A laboratory method of measuring the accumulation, transfer, elimination, and degradation of xenobiotic contaminants is described for organisms in a freshwater food chain microorganisms, filter-feeder, and fish. A flow-through diluter-system, 14C-labeled contaminants, gas and thin-layer chromatography, autoradiography, and liquid scintillation spectrometry are used in making residue determinations.
Accumulation factors and various index values are developed for measuring and estimating potential accumulation of xenobiotic contaminants by aquatic organisms. The laboratory procedure is economical, simple, reproducible, and ecologically relevant. Solvent Extraction of Copper: A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy.
Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…. Analysis of simulated angiographic procedures. To create and test methods of extracting efficiency data from recordings of simulated renal stent procedures.
Task analysis was performed and used to design a standardized testing protocol. Five experienced angiographers then performed 16 renal stent simulations using the Simbionix AngioMentor angiographic simulator. Audio and video recordings of these simulations were captured from multiple vantage points.
The recordings were synchronized and compiled. A series of efficiency metrics procedure time, contrast volume, and tool use were then extracted from the recordings. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of these individual metrics was also assessed. The metrics were converted to costs and aggregated to determine the fixed and variable costs of a procedure segment or the entire procedure. Task analysis and pilot testing led to a standardized testing protocol suitable for performance assessment.
Task analysis also identified seven checkpoints that divided the renal stent simulations into six segments. Efficiency metrics for these different segments were extracted from the recordings and showed excellent intra- and interobserver correlations. Analysis of the individual and aggregated efficiency metrics demonstrated large differences between segments as well as between different angiographers.
These differences persisted when efficiency was expressed as either total or variable costs. Task analysis facilitated both protocol development and data analysis.
Efficiency metrics were readily extracted from recordings of simulated procedures. Aggregating the metrics and dividing the procedure into segments revealed potential insights that could be easily overlooked because the simulator currently does not attempt to aggregate the metrics and only provides data derived from the entire procedure.
The data indicate that analysis of simulated angiographic procedures will be a powerful method of assessing performance in interventional radiology. This procedure describes in detail the rules and regulations governing the proper use and maintenance of laboratory notebooks. The purpose of laboratory notebooks was to provide a permanent legal record of experimental procedures and results. Thus, the laboratory notebook served Laboratory assessment of indigenous plant extracts for anti-juvenile hormone activity in Culex quinquefasciatus.
Of 15 plants tested, five plant extracts showed anti-juvenile hormone-like activity against laboratory colonised late fourth instar larvae and adult female mosquitoes. Petroleum ether extract of Eichhornia crassipes and acetone extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Cleome icosandra, Tagetes erectes and Tridax procumbens showed growth inhibitory P less than 0.
Larval pupal intermediates, demalanised pupae, defective egg rafts and adult with deformed flight muscles were few noticeable changes. Biting behaviour was observed to be affected only in Ageratum, Cleome and Tridax extracts P less than 0. Loss of fecundity was observed in the treated mosquitoes but no sterilant effects could be seen. Adults, obtained from larvae exposed to the plant extracts produced significantly shorter egg-rafts P less than 0.
Solid-phase extraction SPE was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…. The SITE demonstration results show Review of procedures used for the extraction of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants. Tropical plants are important sources of anti-cancer lead molecules.
The extraction of bioactive compounds from the plant materials is a fundamental step whose efficiency is critical for the success of drug discovery efforts. There has been no review published of the extraction procedures of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants and hence the following is a critical evaluation of such procedures undertaken prior to the use of these compounds in cancer cell line studies, during the last five years.
It presents a comprehensive analysis of all approaches taken to extract anti-cancer compounds from various tropical plants. Current operator volumes of invasive coronary procedures in Medicare patients: We seek to assess the per-operator volume of diagnostic catheterizations and percutaneous coronary interventions PCI among US cardiologists, and its implication for future manpower needs in the catheterization laboratory.
The number of annual Medicare PCIs peaked in and has trended downward since, however the total number of catheterization laboratories nationwide has increased. It is unknown whether these trends have resulted in a dilution of per-operator volumes, and whether the current supply of interventional cardiologists is appropriate to meet future needs.
We then determined per-physician procedure volumes using National Provider Identifier numbers. There were 1,, Medicare FFS diagnostic catheterizations performed by 11, diagnostic cardiologists, and there were , Medicare FFS PCIs performed by 6, interventional cardiologists in The data reveal a marked difference in the distribution of diagnostic catheterizations and PCIs among operators.
There is a high percentage of low-volume operators performing PCI, raising questions regarding annual volume recommendations for procedural skill maintenance, and the future manpower requirements in the catheterization laboratory. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions. One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.
To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts.
Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T.
The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification.
It was found that the C. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. Predicting the difficulty of a lead extraction procedure: According to recent surveys, many sites performing permanent lead extractions do not meet the minimum prerequisites concerning personnel training, procedures ' volume, or facility requirements.
The current Heart Rhythm Society consensus on lead extractions suggests that patients should be referred to more experienced sites when a better outcome could be achieved. The purpose of this study was to develop a score aimed at predicting the difficulty of a lead extraction procedure through the analysis of a high-volume center database.
This score could help to discriminate patients who should be sent to a referral site. A total of permanent leads were extracted from patients. All procedures were performed from January to May by two expert electrophysiologists, at the University Hospital of Brescia.
Factors influencing the difficulty of a procedure were assessed using a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression model. The fluoroscopy time of the procedure was taken as an index of difficulty. Overall, of Major complications were reported in one patient 0. Minor complications occurred in six 1. Median fluoroscopic time was 8. A procedure was classified as difficult when fluoroscopy time was more than At a univariate analysis, the number of extracted leads and years from implant were significantly associated with an increased risk of fluoroscopy time above 90th PCTL [odds ratio OR 1.
Evaluation of sequential extraction procedures for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium compounds in workplace air samples. Because toxicities may differ for Cr VI compounds of varying solubility, some countries and organizations have promulgated different occupational exposure limits OELs for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium Cr VI compounds, and analytical methods are needed to determine these species in workplace air samples. To address this need, international standard methods ASTM D and ISO have been published that describe sequential extraction techniques for soluble and insoluble Cr VI in samples collected from occupational settings.
However, no published performance data were previously available for these Cr VI sequential extraction procedures. In this work, the sequential extraction methods outlined in the relevant international standards were investigated. Three-step sequential extraction with 1 water, 2 sulfate buffer and 3 carbonate buffer was also investigated.
Sequential extractions were carried out on spiked samples of soluble, sparingly soluble and insoluble Cr VI compounds, and analyses were then generally carried out by using the diphenylcarbazide method. Similar experiments were performed on paint pigment samples and on airborne particulate filter samples collected from stainless steel welding. Two-step sequential extraction of spiked samples with first either water or sulfate buffer, and then carbonate buffer, yielded quantitative recoveries of soluble Cr VI and insoluble Cr VI , respectively.
Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures BCR and Tessier in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range. Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.
For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia.
Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction.
From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of. Selenium speciation in phosphate mine soils and evaluation of a sequential extraction procedure using XAFS. Selenium is a trace element found in western US soils, where ingestion of Se-accumulating plants has resulted in livestock fatalities.
Therefore, a reliable understanding of Se speciation and bioavailability is critical for effective mitigation. Sequential extraction procedures SEP are often employed to examine Se phases and speciation in contaminated soils but may be limited by experimental conditions. The sequence included removal of soluble, PO 4 - extractable , carbonate, amorphous Fe-oxide, crystalline Fe-oxide, organic, and residual Se forms.
This suggests Se was incompletely removed during designated extractions , possibly due to lack of mineral solubilization or reagent specificity. Selenium fractions associated with Fe-oxides were reduced in amount or removed after using hydroxylamine HCl for most soils examined.
XANES results indicate partial dissolution of solid-phases may occur during extraction processes. This study demonstrates why precautions should be taken to improve the validity of SEPs. Mineralogical and chemical characterizations should be completed prior to SEP implementation to identify extractable phases or mineral components that may influence extraction effectiveness.
Sequential extraction procedures can be appropriately tailored for reliable quantification of speciation in contaminated soils. Various animal models are indispensible in biomedical research. Increasing awareness and regulations have prompted the adaptation of more humane approaches in the use of laboratory animals. With the development of easier and faster methodologies to generate genetically altered animals, convenient and humane methods to genotype these animals are important for research involving such animals.
Here, we report skin swabbing as a simple and noninvasive method for extracting genomic DNA from mice and frogs for genotyping. We show that this method is highly reliable and suitable for both immature and adult animals. Our approach allows a simpler and more humane approach for genotyping vertebrate animals. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa.
The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance ANOVA.
The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21nm as averaged size.
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques. Reported here is the mass spectral identification of sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying agents NCAs and the quantitative description of their extractability from common laboratory and household plasticware made of polypropylene.
NCAs are frequently added to polypropylene to improve optical clarity, increase performance properties, and aid in the manufacturing process of this plastic.
NCA addition makes polypropylene plasticware more aesthetically pleasing to the user and makes the product competitive with other plastic formulations. We show here that several NCAs are readily extracted with either ethanol or water from plastic labware during typical laboratory procedures. Observed levels ranged from a nanogram to micrograms of NCA. The electron ionization mass spectra for three sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying agents 1,3: These NCAs now join other well-known plasticizers such as phthalate esters and bisphenol A as common laboratory contaminants.
While the potential toxicity of NCAs in mammalian systems is unknown, the current data provide scientists and consumers the opportunity to make more informed decisions regarding the use of polypropylene plastics. Extractive procedure for uranium determination in water samples by liquid scintillation counting. An extractive procedure for uranium determination using liquid scintillation counting with the URAEX cocktail is described. Interference from radon and a strong influence of nitrate ion were detected in this procedure.
Interference from radium, thorium and polonium emissions were very low when optimal operating conditions were reached. Quenching effects were considered and the minimum detectable activity was evaluated for different sample volumes.
Isotopic analysis of samples can be performed using the proposed method. Comparisons with the results obtained with the general procedure used in alpha spectrometry with passivated implanted planar silicon detectors showed good agreement. The proposed procedure is thus suitable for uranium determination in water samples and can be considered as an alternative to the laborious conventional chemical preparations needed for alpha spectrometry methods using semiconductor detectors. Extraction of Maltol from Fraser Fir: Two methods for the extraction of maltol from Fraser fir needles are performed and compared in this two-week experiment.
A traditional benchtop extraction using dichloromethane is compared to a microwave-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol. Students perform both procedures and weigh the merits of each technique. In doing so, students see a…. Development of extraction procedure for determination of mercury species using SPME-assisted dispersive derivative agent. The extraction procedure for determination of low level mercury using solid phase microextraction was successfully carried out.
Design of experimental works using factorial design and central composite design were applied to screen and predict the optimum condition for extraction step.
Maximum of signal response account as total peak areas for mercury species was obtained when extraction procedure was set up at pH of water sample 5. Reducing time required to reach equilibrium is new improvement achieved in this study. Detection limit for each species MeHg New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques.
Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Integrating standard operating procedures and industry notebook standards to evaluate students in laboratory courses.
To enhance the preparedness of graduates from the Biochemistry and Biotechnology BCBT Major at Minnesota State University Moorhead for employment in the bioscience industry we have developed a new Industry certificate program. The BCBT Industry Certificate was developed to address specific skill sets that local, regional, and national industry experts identified as lacking in new B.
The industry certificate addresses concerns related to working in a regulated industry such as Good Laboratory Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices, and working in a Quality System. In this article we specifically describe how we developed a validation course that uses Standard Operating Procedures to describe grading policy and laboratory notebook requirements in an effort to better prepare students to transition into industry careers.
A modal parameter extraction procedure applicable to linear time-invariant dynamic systems. Modal analysis has emerged as a valuable tool in many phases of the engineering design process. Complex vibration and acoustic problems in new designs can often be remedied through use of the method. Moreover, the technique has been used to enhance the conceptual understanding of structures by serving to verify analytical models. A new modal parameter estimation procedure is presented.
The technique is applicable to linear, time-invariant systems and accommodates multiple input excitations. In order to provide a background for the derivation of the method, some modal parameter extraction procedures currently in use are described. Key features implemented in the new technique are elaborated upon. The influence of extraction procedure on ion concentrations in sediment pore water.
Sediment pore water has the potential to yield important information on sediment quality, but the influence of isolation procedures on the chemistry and toxicity are not completely known and consensus on methods used for the isolation from sediment has not been reached.
To provide additional insight into the influence of collection procedures on pore water chemistry, anion filtered only and cation concentrations were measured in filtered and unfiltered pore water isolated from four sediments using three different procedures: Peepers were constructed using cell culture plates and cellulose membranes, and vacuum extractors consisted of fused-glass air stones attached with airline tubing to 60cc syringes.
Centrifugation was accomplished at two speeds 2, and 10, x g for 30 min in a refrigerated centrifuge maintained at 4? Only minor differences in chemical characteristics and cation and anion concentrations were found among the different collecting methods with differences being sediment specific.
Filtering of the pore water did not appreciably reduce major cation concentrations, but trace metals Cu and Pb were markedly reduced.
Although the extraction methods evaluated produced pore waters of similar chemistries, the vacuum extractor provided the following advantages over the other methods: Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission.
Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows.
These cabinets are maintained under negative pressure by double high-efficiency-particulate-air HEPA -filtered exhaust systems and are the ideal primary containment for housing aerosolization equipment. A well planned workflow between staff members within high containment from, for instance, an animal biosafety level-4 ABSL-4 suit laboratory to the ABSL-4 cabinet laboratory is a crucial component for successful experimentation.
For smooth study execution, establishing a communication network, moving equipment and subjects, and setting up and placing equipment, requires staff members to meticulously plan procedures prior to study initiation. Failed venipuncture procedures can injure patients due to so-called bad veins. Modern laboratory automation resembles a traditional assembly line, termed total laboratory automation TLA.
TLA consists of a specimen sorter that can sort specimens by analytical needs and transport specimens requiring serum or plasma testing to an automated centrifugation station for processing. The sorter can also identify whole blood specimens and convey them to automated instruments for complete blood counts and other hematology testing. These specimens can then be manually transported and inserted into the instrument of choice.
The Ideal Automation Blueprint When first considering the purchase of a fully automated laboratory, the layout of the laboratory and shape of the room is critical for maximizing the return on investment.
A Look at the Future Given that automation is becoming a commodity in larger laboratories, laboratorians need to stay up-to-date on new opportunities. For each area below, I forecast what form laboratory automation may take in the future, perhaps in the next decade or two.
Automated Specimen Separation Blood separation into serum or plasma has been an insuperable bottleneck in all clinical laboratories. Ideally, sample separation should be done at the point of sample collection and incorporate automated labeling. An elegant point-of-care separation solution, the Axial Separation Module, was developed for separating formed elements from plasma in a whole blood specimen in under one minute immediately after phlebotomy 3.
Unfortunately, this technology failed to gain market acceptance. Similar technologies are under development that uses creative means to impart increased centrifugal forces on the blood specimen.
Hopefully, some of these will be commercialized in the near future. Specimen Transportation Despite the variety of methods of transportation currently available, all have considerable flaws.
Human and robotic courier services have inflexible pickup times and delays, while pneumatic tube systems have potential for specimen damage and limited carrying capacity 4. Electric track vehicles reduce the damage risks of tube systems and the lack of flexibility from the courier service, but they take up large amounts of space. One alternative is automated specimen delivery using mobile robots that can negotiate the halls of a hospital 5, 6.
Once in the laboratory, the robot can automatically deliver its payload and continue service without having to interrupt a laboratory technologist 7. In the near future, drones may provide both extra-laboratory as well as inter-laboratory delivery.
Inside a laboratory, drone deliveries can make a foot journey in less than 2 seconds, according to Donald Nagy, CEO of California Computer Research and member of the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Pre-Analytical Automation Once specimens arrive in the laboratory there are new pre-accession processors that can start with a bucket of randomly oriented specimens and finish with racked and processed specimens for downstream analytical processing.
Researchers at the University of Utah are developing an automated specimen inspector that examines critical specimen quality issues such as proper labeling, sufficient volume, and correct vial additive. In the future, the inspector will also determine the presence of lipemia, icterus, or hemolysis through several overlaid labels 8.
Essentially the entire accessioning process will be automated so that time from phlebotomy to result will be 30 minutes or less. Sample Labeling Mistakes in sample labeling can lead to sample misplacement and mislabeling, resulting in a loss of samples and inaccurate results. The progression from manual labeling to 2- and 3-D barcodes has dealt with many labeling problems and significantly cut down on sample misplacement and mislabeling.
However, the development affordable radio-frequency identification RFID is poised to allow positive passive specimen tracking as samples are moved from patient bedside to analysis.
Advances in Clinical Laboratory Automation
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