One of the most overlooked benefits of CBD, the non-psychoactive cannabis compound, is its ability to combat drug and alcohol addiction. 7-day period of CBD treatment not only prevented the development of previously. In this article we discuss about main benefits of CBD, can CBD help in addiction recovery and what to do if you are suffering from addiction. CBD helps cells connect with the central nervous system and organs to create The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reported that.
Recovery and How Aids CBD Addiction Drug in Alcohol
The glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems have been found to play an important role in the reinforcing effects of drugs and prolonged risk of relapse. Other ionotropic cannabinoid receptors are also linked to neurophysiological functions in the ECBS, such as transient receptor potential receptors, including transient receptor vanilloid potential 1 TRVP1 , which binds the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide AEA 5 Supplementary Table 1 lists the abbreviations.
Its psychosis and anxiety-inducing addictive properties are well known. The direct impact of CBD on glutamatergic neurotransmission is not known, but its protective effects on glutamate toxicity have been studied. In past years, several researchers have studied the effects of CBD on physical and mental health, and a growing number have focused on the effects of CBD on addiction. The main objective of this review is to systematically examine the existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the effects of CBD on addictive behaviors.
The search was restricted to English and French-language articles before Both the databases were independently searched by two reviewers MP and RC , and the titles and abstracts were sorted followed by careful reading of the complete articles when relevant.
A third researcher DJA was consulted in the event of discrepancies occurring between the results of the two reviewers. Studies that focused on other outcomes only anxiety, psychosis, pain, etc were excluded. Studies evaluating the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors for all major types of substances of abuse opioids, psychostimulants, cannabis, hallucinogens, sedatives, alcohol, tobacco, etc have been included. Both studies on humans and animals were included.
All types of study designs were included: When available, the following data were retrieved from the included studies: According to a widely used conceptualization of addiction, 20 the effects of CBD on addictive behaviors were classified in three distinct phases: We identified 21 potentially eligible studies. After a careful review of articles, seven of those were excluded because their outcomes did not fit the purpose of this review or because they were duplicated Supplementary Table 2 provides description of the excluded studies.
Fourteen studies were included Supplementary Fig. Of those, nine were conducted on animals seven experimental rat models, one experimental mice model, and two experimental models involving both rats and mice and five on humans one randomized placebo-controlled study, two crossover clinical studies, one randomized crossover clinical study, and one case report.
Of the preclinical studies, five dealt with opioid, one with psychostimulant, one with opioid and psychostimulant, and two with cannabis addiction. Of the studies involving humans, three were related to cannabis, one to tobacco, and one to alcohol addiction Supplementary Table 3 contains a detailed description of each study.
Studies were found on all three phases of opioid addiction. They found that CBD inhibited the decrease of the ICSS threshold by morphine and thus its reward-facilitating effect, without influencing motor function. The results showed that CBD alone did not influence the score, but reduced the number of fecal boluses, while increasing wet shakes. Hine et al conducted another study, with the same objectives, doses, and methodology as the previous one.
Bhargava also investigated the effects of cannabinoids on morphine withdrawal syndrome. CBD inhibited the naloxone withdrawal—induced jumping and reduced defecation and rearing behaviors. More recently, Ren et al evaluated the impact of CBD on heroin addiction vulnerability using a drug self-administration SA rat model. The effects of CBD were examined during the maintenance and extinction phases of SA and during cue-induced reinstatement. On the other hand, CBD failed to influence drug-seeking behavior initiated by heroine prime.
Overall, CBD was found to have an impact on the intoxication and relapse phase of opioid addiction. Data on its effect during the withdrawal phase remain conflicting and vary based on co-administration of other cannabinoids such as THC. Few studies examined the effects of CBD on the intoxication and relapse phases of psychostimulant addiction. They found that both cannabinoids potentiated the extinction of cocaine- and amphetamine-induced place preference learning and that this effect was not reversed by the administration of a CB1 receptors antagonist.
These effects were not mediated by learning or retrieval alteration and CBD did not have hedonic properties on its own. Moreover, they also studied the effects of cannabinoids on the establishment of stimulant CPP. In that case, CBD showed no impact. Few studies have examined the effects of CBD administration on various outcomes during the intoxication and relapse phase of cannabis addiction. While CBD does not appear to be reinforcing on its own, its impact on cannabis-related addictive behaviors in animal models remains unclear.
No animal study was found on hallucinogen-, sedative-, tobacco-, or alcohol-addictive behaviors. Outcomes of CBD on all three phases of cannabis addiction were found. Crippa et al investigated the effects of CBD on cannabis addiction and its withdrawal syndrome.
CBD was administered for 11 days mg on day 1, mg on days 2—10, and mg on day Daily assessments using the Withdrawal Discomfort Score, Marijuana Withdrawal Symptom Checklist, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory showed a rapid decrease in withdrawal symptoms, leading to a score of zero in all tests by day 6.
A 6-month follow-up showed a relapse in cannabis use, but at a lower frequency one or twice a week vs. In a naturalistic crossover clinical study, Morgan et al evaluated the impact of varying levels of CBD and THC on the acute effects of cannabis intoxication. Morgan et al conducted another study and evaluated the impact of CBD on the reinforcing effects of THC on addictive behavior.
Greater attentional bias to drug and food stimuli was found in the low CBD: However, a greater attentional bias to both stimuli was found in both groups on the longer picture presentation interval on the intoxicated day and on both short and long picture presentation intervals on the drug-free day.
Moreover, a high CBD: Overall, preliminary data suggest a possible beneficial impact of CBD on the reinforcing effect of cannabis, while a case report has shown positive outcomes for one patient treated with CBD during the withdrawal and relapse phase of cannabis dependence. Only one study looked at the impact of CBD on tobacco addiction. Morgan et al studied the impact of CBD on nicotine addiction by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 24 smokers who wished to stop smoking.
They were told to use the inhaler whenever they felt the urge to smoke, to assess daily cigarette and inhaler use, and to monitor their craving once daily for 1 week. Cravings were measured at baseline and at the end of the week. A 2-week follow-up was organized to assess cigarette use. Both groups also showed a reduction in cravings between day 1 and day 7, though not between day 1 and follow-up.
Only the impact of CBD on the intoxication phase of alcohol addiction was extracted from the review of literature. No human study was found for opioid-, psychostimulant-, hallucinogen-, or sedative-addictive behaviors. The present review aims to examine the available evidence showing the effects of CBD on different addictive behaviors, in both animals and humans.
While neural mechanisms implicated in this process are yet to be completely understood eg, its action on the ECBS or the modulation of pharmacokinetic properties of drugs , CBD seems to influence specific phases of addiction for only certain substances of abuse Supplementary Table 4.
CBD appears to have an impact on the intoxication phase of opioid addiction in animals, by reducing the reward-facilitating effect of morphine on the ICSS threshold.
No evidence was found for the intoxication and relapse phases of cannabis addiction, 28 , 29 with no results for the withdrawal phase. Rahael Mechoulam from Hebrew University in , this system is found across our brain, organs, glands, connective tissue and immune cells. It also has regulatory roles in many physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
In this system, cannabinoids can help regulate every physiological system such as our nervous system, digestive system, reproductive system, immune system, endocrine system, and muscular system. By taking CBD, you are stimulating the receptors of your nervous system.
When it comes to substance abuse, the reason CBD is known to be so beneficial is because of its role in our neurosystem. When someone starts drinking alcohol excessively, the liquor damages our body in two main areas: Between these two, the reason one starts to rely on alcohol and relapses into a habit of drinking is because of the latter.
Excessive alcohol causes neurodegeneration, which means that it starts to slowly kill off the neurons in our brain. This impairment causes behavioral and cognitive changes that increases the tendency for us to chronically relapse into substance abuse. This means it protects and even repairs the brain from the damages caused by substances such as alcohol. The most apparent behaviors of withdrawal symptoms from smoking are anxiety, insomnia, and irritability.
These are mainly caused by the fact that nicotine and THC enhances the brain reward mechanisms, while also desensitizing the neuron receptors at the same time. Also, doctors prescribe fewer opiates to pain patients in states that have access to medical and adult use marijuana. Additionally, cannabis and CBD for addiction can help several types of recovering addicts. A review looked into 14 studies that were done on CBD for addiction, all published before It found that CBD may have therapeutic properties for cocaine, opioid, and psychostimulant addiction and may also be beneficial in tobacco and cannabis addiction in humans.
From cigarettes to tobacco, CBD for addiction has shown some promising results. CBD is one of the over 85 cannabinoids that can be found in cannabis and hemp. For this reason, researchers have been studying CBD since the s. In the human body, there are two known CBD receptors. These are the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
They are largely present in the brain, but you will find them spread throughout the body and around the spine. When these receptors interact with CBD, they modulate neurotransmitter release, preventing excessive neuronal activity in order to reduce pain and inflammation, affect perception and memory, regulate movement, and calm anxiety.
Also, CBD helps to mediate cytokine release to reduce pain and inflammation. These include helping with metabolic syndrome, reducing inflammation and pain, treating the liver, and much more.
These effects help to regulate serotonin and dopamine production, reduce inflammation and aid in reducing cravings. The reason that CBD is thought to be so beneficial for addiction recovery is due to the role it plays in our neurological system. When a person drinks alcohol excessively, the two main areas that the liquor damages in the body are the brain and the liver. The reason that one starts to rely on alcohol and often relapses into a habit of drinking is because of the brain.
Excessive consumption of alcohol causes neurodegeneration, meaning that it will slowly start to kill off neurons in the brain. This causes cognitive and behavioral changes that will increase the tendency for us to relapse into the abuse of substances chronically. One of the main benefits of CBD is that researchers think it may function as a neuroprotectant. This means that it may protect or even repair the brain from damages that are caused by substances like alcohol.
The most obvious behaviors of withdrawal symptoms from smoking are insomnia, anxiety, and irritability. As you stop smoking, your brain will ask for reinforcements through signals of withdrawal.
Also, CBD stimulates the receptors in the nervous system which prevents or repairs neurons from being desensitized.
As a result, pure CBD has a lot of great therapeutic benefits without the effects of being high. In addition, CBD might have some neuroprotective benefits as we mentioned before.
What is CBD Oil? Unraveling the Mystery
a visual list of risks of taking cbd oil in addiction recovery and many turn to drugs or alcohol to self-medicate them without the aid of a doctor. Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by Keywords: review, cannabidiol, drug addiction, addictive behaviors, treatment .. Finally, CBD does not exhibit a potential impact on the alcohol addiction. Cannabidiol, or CBD, found in marijuana can help prevent drug and alcohol addiction relapses.