CBD oil is a natural remedy derived from the cannabis plant. status as an illegal Schedule 1 drug, research on CBD oil is still in its infancy. Analyzing several trials and studies, a report concluded that adults treated. Geneva, November Page 2. 39th ECDD () Agenda item Cannabidiol (CBD). Page 2 .. Listing on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. . There is unsanctioned medical use of CBD based products with oils, supplements, gums, and (+)-CBD is likely to cause THC-like psychoactive effects. D. 15, -- A compound found in the cannabis plant is not harmful, has health and human studies, the committee concludes that "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects . In the U.S., CBD is a Schedule 1 controlled substance. CBD is an ingredient in popular products sold over the counter as oils, extracts.
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Using various safety outcome variables, clinical tests, and the cannabis side effect inventory, it was shown that there were no differences between the placebo group and the CBD group in the observed side effects.
The occurrence of various degrees of GVHD was compared with historical data from patients, who had only received the standard treatment. This resulted in lower resistin levels compared to baseline. The hormone resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Compared to baseline, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide levels were elevated after CBD treatment. This incretin hormone is produced in the proximal duodenum by K cells and has insulinotropic and pancreatic b cell preserving effects.
CBD was well tolerated in the patients. However, with the comparatively low CBD concentrations used in this phasetrial, no overall improvement of glycemic control was observed. When weight and appetite were measured as part of a measurement battery for side effects, results were inconclusive. For instance, the study mentioned above, where 23 children with Dravet syndrome were treated, increases as well as decreases in appetite and weight were observed as side effects.
However, in the safety analysis group, consisting of subjects, 10 showed decreased weight and 12 had gained weight. Both these factors were not controlled for in the reviewed studies. This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al.
First, more studies researching CBD side effects after real chronic administration need to be conducted. Many so-called chronic administration studies, cited here were only a couple of weeks long. Second, many trials were conducted with a small number of individuals only. To perform a throrough general safety evaluation, more individuals have to be recruited into future clinical trials. Third, several aspects of a toxicological evaluation of a compound such as genotoxicity studies and research evaluating CBD effect on hormones are still scarce.
Especially, chronic studies on CBD effect on, for example, genotoxicity and the immune system are still missing. Last, studies that evaluate whether CBD-drug interactions occur in clinical trials have to be performed. In conclusion, CBD safety profile is already established in a plethora of ways. However, some knowledge gaps detailed above should be closed by additional clinical trials to have a completely well-tested pharmaceutical compound.
The study was commissioned by the European Industrial Hemp Association. EIHA paid nova-Institute for the review. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Jun 1. Find articles by Kerstin Iffland. Find articles by Franjo Grotenhermen. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Relevant Preclinical Studies Before we discuss relevant animal research on CBD possible effects on various parameters, several important differences between route of administration and pharmacokinetics between human and animal studies have to be mentioned.
Open in a separate window. The reality is more complex, because CBD is lipophilic and, for example, will consequently accumulate in fat tissue. These calculations were made with the intention to give the reader an impression and an approximation of the supraphysiological levels used in in vitro studies. CBD-drug interactions Cytochrome Pcomplex enzymes This paragraph describes CBD interaction with general drug -metabolizing enzymes, such as those belonging to the cytochrome P family.
Neurological and neurospychiatric effects Anxiety and depression Some studies indicate that under certain circumstances, CBD acute anxiolytic effects in rats were reversed after repeated day administration of CBD.
Psychosis and bipolar disorder Various studies on CBD and psychosis have been conducted. Addiction CBD, which is nonhedonic, can reduce heroin-seeking behavior after, for example, cue-induced reinstatement. Neuroprotection and neurogenesis There are various mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, for example, energy metabolism whose alteration has been implied in several psychiatric disorders and proper mitochondrial functioning.
Immune system Numerous studies show the CBD immunomodulatory role in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes.
Cell migration Embryogenesis CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis. Cancer Various studies have been performed to study CBD anticancer effects. Food intake and glycemic effects Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity Jones et al. Acute Clinical Data Bergamaschi et al.
Physiological effects In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. Psychosis The review by Bergamaschi et al.
Addiction A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Endocrine effects and glycemic including appetite effects To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects. Physiological effects A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects Anxiety Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.
Psychosis and bipolar disorder In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. Conclusion This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al.
Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabis und Cannabinoide in der Medizin: Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Molecular targets of cannabidiol in neurological disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: Distinct effects of D9-tetrahydro-cannabinoland cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing.
Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans. Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P CYP enzymes. How physicochemical properties of drugs affect their metabolism and clearance. New horizons in predictive drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Royal Society of Chemistry: Human metabolites of cannabidiol: Induction and genetic regulation of mouse hepatic cytochrome P by cannabidiol. ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice.
Cannabidiol enhances xenobiotic permeability through the human placental barrier by direct inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein: Am J Obstet Gynecol. Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice.
Cannabidiol, among other cannabinoid drugs, modulates prepulse inhibition of startle in the SHR animal model: Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice.
Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. Schurr A, Livne A. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase from brain by hashish components.
Neuroprotective effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol in hypoxicischemic newborn piglets. Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain. Inhibiting heat shock proteins can potentiate the cytotoxic effect of cannabidiol in human glioma cells.
Cannabidiol CBD and its analogs: The antitumor activity of plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.
Id-1 gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer. The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Pharmacological targeting of ion channels for cancer therapy: Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule Gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer.
Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as potential curative agents for cancer: Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.
Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabivarin on glycemic and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: Marijuana extracts possess the effects like the endocrine disrupting chemicals.
Inhibition of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P by cannabidiol in adult male rats. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. J Pharm Ex Ther. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Current status and prospects for cannabidiol preparations as new therapeutic agents. Persson A, Ingelman-Sundberg M.
Pharmacogenomics of cytochrome P dependent metabolism of endogenous compounds: J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics ; 5: Pathophysiological implications of neurovascular P in brain disorders. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: J Clin Pharm Ther.
Early phase in the development of cannabidiol as a treatment for addiction: Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers. Braz J Med Biol Res.
Effects of cannabidiol treatment on cortisol response to social stress in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. Drug—drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. The same medicine showed a notable reduction in pain and muscle spasms in a small group of people with Multiple Sclerosis.
Analyzing several trials and studies, a report concluded that adults treated with cannabis or cannabinoids, like CBD, are likely to experience a significant reduction in chronic pain symptoms 5. There is some indication that CBD oil could help treat anxiety and depression. In various animal studies, CBD has shown notable anti-anxiety and antidepressant-like effects 6 , 7 , 8. With a group of 60 people, they found that CBD showed anti-anxiety effects, but only in specific doses.
A case study on a child with post-traumatic stress disorder found that CBD oil helped safely reduce her anxiety and improve her sleep However, they did see some positive effects for those with social anxiety disorder There are some other dietary components thought to influence depression here.
While they emphasize that CBD is not a cure, plenty of research shows it can be highly beneficial in inhibiting the progression of many types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate and colon cancer CBD is also effective in lowering cancer-related pain, as well as nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.
Much of the research on CBD has looked at its seizure-reducing effects on two rare forms of childhood-onset epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. In fact, the FDA just approved the first prescription cannabis drug, called Epidiolex, for these two forms of epilepsy Interestingly, CBD actually counteracts the psychoactive properties of THC, meaning it may help those addicted to marijuana. Some scientists also believe that CBD could have the potential to help treat type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease because of its anti-inflammatory properties.
It did appear to lower the incidence of diabetes in mice In fact, it may be more effective than vitamin C and E in improving skin conditions Early research has found that CBD oil has the potential to reduce chronic pain, anxiety, depression and acne, and may help those overcoming addiction. Its anti-inflammatory properties may also play a role in lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has even shown anti-tumor effects and could be effective in inhibiting the progression of cancer and its related symptoms.
CBD oil is generally safe, and even chronic use at high doses has shown to be well tolerated by humans There may also be potential interaction with other medicines. This review opens strong, stating: This is a staggering number of people who suffer from anxiety.
The authors analyzed prior human and animal studies to consolidate the information and make an overarching determination as to the therapeutic effect of cannabinoids, particularly, CBD. The article looked to a multitude of findings from prior studies such as human anxiety in public speaking and electrical stimulation in animal subjects.
Long story short, this article confirmed that CBD appears to be a promising treatment for panic disorders. This is incredibly encouraging not only for those with panic disorder but also those with varying types of anxiety who currently rely on psychiatric medications. High blood pressure is a globally ubiquitous issue. This study explores the connection between CBD and a reduction in blood pressure.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, nine healthy male volunteers were given either mg of CBD or a placebo. They were then monitored for changes in their cardiovascular system. Using stress tests, such as math without a calculator, cardiovascular outputs were monitored. The study found that CBD reduced resting systolic blood pressure and stroke volume. High blood pressure has a multitude of potential treatments , including diet and exercise.
This study essentially adds CBD to the list. The data from this research is also important as information for potential side-effects of CBD. This study combats the notion that CBD causes a THC high by discussing the misinterpretations of prior studies on the subject. The first prior study analyzed the changes in CBD when mixed with a petri-dish simulation of stomach acids. Interpretation of the results yielded the researcher conclusion that CBD does convert to THC when exposed to stomach acids.
The conclusion was based on tests done on human volunteers. The study authors noted that both prior studies were severely misinterpreted. This is due to two main reasons. In vitro results are suggestions, not proofs for processes in real life. This is a truly impactful study for CBD use as it takes direct aim at the common-yet-faulty belief that CBD is a psychoactive compound.
In a test that involved giving volunteers chocolate milk to drink, this study sought the answer to a quirky question: Over the course of three test sessions the healthy volunteers were randomly given either a placebo, CBD, or THC and then got chocolate-wasted on several samples of chocolate milk, rating the sweetness after each. Over the course of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 38 participants were given either a placebo or variable dose of CBD.
This is obviously a rollercoaster of a study which found that the ups and downs of the ride did not change based on whether the participant received a placebo or CBD. Again, this can be good news or bad depending on the point of view: CBD might not affect how one emotionally views the world, which is great because that is one side-effect less to a potential health therapy. It should be noted that this study seems to be at odds with other studies in this list that say CBD is a potential therapy for anxiety.
Regardless, de Wit makes the apt point: Schizophrenia is a disorder that generally requires heavy antipsychotic drugs just to manage daily life. As discussed in the review, CBD may be a possible alternative to such heavy prescription drugs. CBD has both anti-inflammatory and anti-psychotic characteristics.
Thus, the aim of the review was to evaluate literature both preclinical and clinical on the effects of CBD in relation to schizophrenia. The authors looked through 27 articles from the past 26 years. Due to the lack of clinical evidence, the level and effectiveness that CBD might have cannot be clearly stated. The review is nonetheless an excellent starting point for the future use of CBD in neurological treatments.
The goal of this study is to find an alternative to heavy pain medication, which can lead to prescription drug-abuse. Of those who had reported using an opioid medication for pain in the six months prior to the survey, the following responses were gathered after cannabis-use:. While the survey is not specifically about CBD, this is an important area of research into the non-addictive nature of cannabis and lack of side effects that accompanies its use.
Also, not only is it effective on its own but it can also aid the current use of opioids and decrease the need for such medication. Ultimately, CBD may one day be a viable replacement for pain-management medications. Full disclosure, this is not a published study yet, but the announcement itself is worth including in this list.
The study will include adults with HIV as this group, compared with the general public, has higher levels of chronic pain and opioid use.
This is particularly exciting news as it is the first long-term study of this question. DO; Gerich, Mark E. MD; Hoffenberg, Edward J. MD; Collins, Colm B. As noted in this review , while modern medicine does tend to allow people to live relatively normal lives, the medicines used to treat IBD can have limited benefits and lose effectiveness. The ECS is a biological system within mammals that is made up of three components:
CBD Oil Dosage: General Tips to Assess How Much CBD to Take
The list of CBD oil benefits and health concerns treatable by CBD is so long . lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products, including CBD oil, take .. Moskowitz MD, personal communication with the authors, February 2, CBD, or cannabidiol, oil is currently being studied for its health benefits. CBD oil benefits list . This is partially because Schedule 1 substances like cannabis are highly regulated, causing Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT on April 10, — Written by Kristeen Cherney. The health benefits of CBD oil are being studied by world-class researchers We analyzed and summarized 17 of the best CBD studies of While this is not a comprehensive list, it does highlight some of the critical.