Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy. Ujváry I(1), Hanuš L(2). Author information. An early study on the inhibition of the binding of . the biological activity of CBD metabolites in humans. a brief summary, see the relevant section in a recent review). Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy. István Ujváry; and; Lumír.
in Their Relevance Biological Human on Cannabidiol: of Review Activity, Metabolites A and Formation,
Either way, to ensure reproducible effects, cannabinoid preparations should be consumed at fixed time eg, one hour before a meal and in the same medium. The difficulty to accurately set the dose is often pointed to as the main disadvantage of oral administration. The titration method, easy to apply with inhalation or sublingual administration, is difficult in this case, since it takes way longer for the effects of single dose administred orally to occur. On the other hand, oral administration may be beneficial due to the longest lasting effect it produces in comparison to the other methods of administration .
The dose of cannabinoids administrated orally will be absorbed on a much longer time span than when inhaled, resulting in much more stable and longer-lasting effect. Identification of psychoactive degradants od cannabidiol in simulated gastric and physiological fluid.
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 1. Physicians information for Marinol dronabinol. Different cannabinoids exhibit different pharmacological and toxicological properties.
A review of the literature. While first-pass metabolism could be avoided by rectal administration of suppository formulation of CBs, as it has been demonstrated for THC, 46 , 47 relevant studies with CBD appear to be lacking. In these cases, however, factors influencing CB pharmacokinetics were unknown.
No information is available for tissue distribution of CBD or its metabolites in living humans and relevant animal studies are scarce. In rats, analysis of blood and brain A recent study compared plasma and brain levels of CBD after oral or intraperitoneal i. Oral administration offered six times higher brain peak CBD concentrations in rats than in mice 8.
The effects of cosolvents and excipients on pharmacokinetics, involving cytochrome P CYP oxidases and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters, of lipophilic substances in general have been extensively investigated. It must be noted that none of the above studies reported on the metabolic fate of CBD and no information is available on the human pharmacokinetics of the metabolites. For an early mouse study indicating slow elimination of unidentified polar metabolites, see Karler et al.
Subsequently, the use of sophisticated analytical techniques, especially GC-MS and, occasionally, reliance on synthetic standards for structure confirmation allowed the unequivocal identification of CB metabolites in humans see below. Being a good substrate of CYP mixed function oxidases, CBD undergoes extensive hydroxylation at multiple sites and further oxidations result in a complex metabolic pattern; altogether, some CBD metabolites have been identified from various organisms.
Following initial excretion studies, 32 , 58 about 40 oxygenated human Phase I metabolites have been characterized. The O -glucuronide conjugate of CBD was one of the most abundant urinary excretion products A further nonoxidized CB, probably a cyclized monophenol, was also detected at 1.
Figure 2c lists five side-chain monohydroxylated CBD metabolites, which were recently identified in a human liver preparation in vitro 60 ; all of them had been known from previous animal studies. The enzymatic processes responsible for the formation of the metabolites involve CYP oxidases, glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, of which the CYP enzyme family has only been thoroughly studied.
Sulfation of CBD species may also occur but such conjugates remain unknown. Studies should thus use appropriate hydrolysis before Phase I metabolite quantification. Finally, it should be mentioned that interindividual differences in the expression and function of CYP enzymes may considerably affect the pharmacokinetics of CBD and its metabolites, and this could be relevant in the therapeutic action and any possible adverse effects of CBD-containing preparations.
One of the interesting metabolites of CBD is cannabielsoin Fig. The atypical quinone HU was found to inhibit mouse hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes, 78 CYP3A11 in particular, 79 as well as induced apoptosis of splenocytes isolated from mice. HU also has antiangiogenic properties and is a selective inhibitor of topoisomerase II. There have been only a few in vivo investigations with selected monooxygenated metabolites. HU, which has been postulated to be a short-lived re active oxidative metabolite of CBD with CYP inhibitory properties, 79 , 80 has been extensively investigated in rodents due to its anticancer activity.
There are no publications describing the biological activity of CBD metabolites in humans. The pharmacological actions of CBD on receptors, ion channels, cellular uptake processes, and enzymes have recently been reviewed 9—11 and are not reiterated here. Since CBD is often administered concomitantly with other medicines, for example, as an adjunct in the therapy of certain diseases, drug—drug interactions should be taken into account.
What follows is a brief summary of such effects possibly having relevance in the clinical use of CBD. The contentious issue of CBD—THC interaction, however, is not discussed here for a brief summary, see the relevant section in a recent review The first pharmacological effect to be observed for CBD was, in fact, related to drug interaction.
It has repeatedly been demonstrated that CBD is not only a substrate but also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes, and thus, it could interfere with the metabolism of other xenobiotics, including THC and medicinal products. The presence and role of CBD metabolites in the observed drug interactions have not been reported.
Recently, an 8-week trial studied the interaction of the anticonvulsant drug clobazam and CBD in 13 children with refractory epilepsy. Furthermore, CBD has been shown to interact in vitro with P-glycoprotein efflux transporters involved in multidrug resistance, and thus, it may affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs.
The identification of CBD metabolites has typically relied on mass spectral fragmentation patterns, and structural confirmation by synthesis was done only in a few cases; nevertheless, essentially all single-site modified CBD metabolites have been prepared. The aim of most of these syntheses was merely to verify the chemical structure of a metabolite and not to provide material for bioassays. The few exceptional studies were discussed in the preceding paragraphs.
Analytical characterizations of and synthetic methodologies for all five metabolites hydroxylated at the pentyl side chain were described in the early s.
Chemical syntheses of metabolites oxidized at multiple sites have not been published. Several drugs used in therapy are metabolically converted into active metabolites and interindividual variations in the generation and pharmacokinetics of such active species may cause variability in the response to treatment by different individuals.
Pharmacological studies with such metabolites are scarce yet suggest interesting biological activities, which are unrelated or not directly related to CB receptors. Thus, intriguing questions arise:.
Could any of the pharmacological effects observed for CBD be attributed to its metabolites? Are there any drug—drug interactions that affect the outcome of the therapeutic effects of other, non-CB medicines used concomitantly with CBD? Could any of the metabolites be used as templates for the development of novel therapeutic agents?
The pharmacological characterization of CBD metabolites both in vitro and in vivo is timely and necessary to shed light on the multifaceted, perplexing, or sometimes even contradictory biological properties observed for the parent CB. The understanding of the clinical significance of these abundant metabolites in the proven therapeutic effects of CBD-containing preparations warrants further studies.
Michael Evans-Brown is gratefully acknowledged for linguistic advice. Cite this article as: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Mar 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supplemental data. Abstract Cannabidiol CBD , the main nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa , has shown a wide range of therapeutically promising pharmacological effects either as a sole drug or in combination with other drugs in adjunctive therapy.
Open in a separate window. Human Pharmacokinetics of CBD Upon Various Administration Routes Extensive studies in animals, including rodents and the dog, indicate that a large portion of the administered CBD is excreted intact or as its glucuronide. Chemical structures of CBD-derived substances of biological interest. Studies in animals There have been only a few in vivo investigations with selected monooxygenated metabolites.
Human studies There are no publications describing the biological activity of CBD metabolites in humans. Interaction with other drugs The pharmacological actions of CBD on receptors, ion channels, cellular uptake processes, and enzymes have recently been reviewed 9—11 and are not reiterated here. Synthesis of CBD Metabolites The identification of CBD metabolites has typically relied on mass spectral fragmentation patterns, and structural confirmation by synthesis was done only in a few cases; nevertheless, essentially all single-site modified CBD metabolites have been prepared.
Summary Several drugs used in therapy are metabolically converted into active metabolites and interindividual variations in the generation and pharmacokinetics of such active species may cause variability in the response to treatment by different individuals.
Thus, intriguing questions arise: Supplementary Material Supplemental data: Click here to view. Acknowledgment Michael Evans-Brown is gratefully acknowledged for linguistic advice. Author Disclosure Statement No competing financial interest. Structure of cannabidiol, a product isolated from the marihuana extract of Minnesota wild hemp.
J Am Chem Soc. Jacob A, Todd AR. Isolation of cannabidiol from Egyptian hashish. Observations on the structure of cannabinol. Study of the kinetics of decarboxylation is of importance for phytocannabinoid isolation and dosage formulation for medical use Rates of cannabis use disorder CUD among vulnerable populations have increased in recent years, highlighting a need to equip providers with an efficient screening tool.
A short form of the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test-Revised CUDIT-R was developed by using item response theory and traditional statistical methods, with data from two community samples of cannabis users representing two countries. Four item selection methods Rasch regression, test characteristic curve, logistic regression, discriminant function analysis were employed to identify the optimal three-item shortened version Training and Practices of Cannabis Dispensary Staff.
The proliferation of cannabis dispensaries within the United States has emerged from patient demand for the legalization of cannabis as an alternative treatment for a number of conditions and symptoms. To address this limitation, the present study assessed the training and practices of cannabis dispensary staff. Although cannabis use creates health risks, governments have recently been legalizing either medical use or leisure use. These governments can mandate health warnings on cannabis packages.
Prior research examined recommended warnings of cannabis experts. The aim of this study was to obtain suggested cannabis health and safety warnings from cannabis users. We used a media release, Facebook postings, and announcements in university classes to seek individuals who had used cannabis at least once according to their own report The Name of Cannabis: A Short Guide for Nonbotanists.
The genus Cannabis Family Cannabaceae is probably indigenous to wet habitats of Asiatic continent. The long coexistence between mankind and Cannabis led to an early domestication of the plant, which soon showed an amazing spectrum of possible utilizations, as a source of textile fibers, as well as narcotic and psychoactive compounds.
Nowadays, the specie s belonging to the genus Cannabis are represented by myriads of cultivated varieties, often with unstable taxonomic foundations. The nomenclature of Cannabis has been the object of numerous nomenclatural treatments Acute kidney injury AKI is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
In this study, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid EC system in renal IRI using a well-established mouse model. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects.
The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered:
Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological relevant concentration, might contribute to or even account for the studies on the biological activity of CBD metabolites either in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, scarce information is available on the biological activity of its human metabolites which, when formed in pharmacologically relevant concentration. information is available on the biological activity of its human metabolites which, activity of CBD metabolites either in vitro or in vivo, and discusses relevant.