Factory-made edibles — cannabis-infused chocolate, or beverages — won’t be available for another year. Take this oil, produced for the medical market by Spectrum Cannabis, the medical division of Smiths Falls., Ont.-based Canopy Growth. It has mg of THC per millilitre. Holding an office Christmas party for your staff this year?Wondering if the rules have changed with legal cannabis?Well, they have and they. Murphy predicted on Facebook Live that recreational marijuana use could But that date might be tricky, since neither the state Senate nor the.
Trickier THC Is
If someone has autoimmunity and chronic pain, steroids may not help address the root of the discomfort. In general, immunosuppressive therapy is incredibly expensive and not always effective. The aim should be to modulate the immune system and bring it back into balance, not to turn it off completely. What options exist for someone with an autoimmune condition if they do not wish to use traditional medications?
Holistic approaches for autoimmune conditions are to decrease inflammation, repair the digestive tract, and regulate the immune system. This includes getting rid of stressors and sensitivities on the broad spectrum, including environmental, food, chemical, and others. Managing autoimmune disease requires dietary and lifestyle changes, which have been reported to help reverse these conditions.
Someone with an autoimmune disease may consider cannabinoid therapies for their ability to decrease inflammation, modulate the immune system, and help to bring the system back into balance. The immune system is a delicate balancing act and deeper investigation is needed to better understand the mechanisms of how it works.
Herbs and foods that work to modulate the immune system are ideal for someone dealing with an autoimmune condition. Cannabis therapy and dietary changes seem to be safer, cheaper, and possibly more effective for combating autoimmune conditions than pharmaceutical medications.
Cannabis and other adaptogenic herbs are known to be immune modulating. They act as a regulating tool: However, the difference between "immune modulating" and "immune boosting" can be tricky to decipher. It is generally felt that someone with autoimmunity would not want to take anything which boosts the immune system, but this is a point of contention among practitioners.
According to Kevin Spelman, faculty member in Botanical Medicine at National University of Natural Medicine, the definition of immune modulatory is the biphasic effect of an herbal medicine. The category of immunomodulation rests on biphasic activity. If someone's immune response is overly vigilant, there would be a down regulation of immune response. If someone's immune response is 'deficient' there would be an increase of immune activity.
Cannabis is a unique biphasic botanical remedy that can bring the system back into balance in numerous regards. Based on current research, cannabis therapies may provide benefit for autoimmune disease in three basic ways: Cannabis medicine may also treat symptoms of specific autoimmune diseases like ALS, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's, fibromyalgia, Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, and others.
The plant may decrease chronic pain, inflammation, and spasms associated with some of these conditions. There have been few specific investigations on cannabinoid treatment for AI, due to federal prohibition on human clinical trials. However, extensive studies in test-tubes and in animals have reported the anti-inflammatory benefits of cannabinoids for specific AI conditions like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Investigation has demonstrated that CB2 receptors regulate many complex pathways of the immune system.
Preclinical studies show that triggering CB2 receptors can suppress immune response, which can be beneficial for those suffering with AI. CB2 can also inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokines, which helps to restore a balanced state.
However, there are conflicting reports as research has shown that CB2 activation, under certain conditions, may aggravate inflammation. There has been some preclinical investigation focusing on the role of particular cannabinoids in AI disease models. CBD has been found to modulate the immune system instead of suppressing it. Cannabidiol also slows down T-cell production and suppresses immune system memory, meaning that CBD could cut down on the likelihood of future autoimmune attacks.
CBD has also been found to increase the expression of genes that deal with oxidative stress, which may reduce cell damage from autoimmune attacks.
As for THC, this cannabinoid is immunosuppressive only at very high doses. In low doses can be helpful as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Its ability to activate CB2 receptors may down regulate T cell function and decrease the harmful effects of immune cells. The role of cannabis terpenes for autoimmunity deserve further investigation as well. The terpene beta-caryophyllene, found in certain strains of cannabis and black pepper, is known to decrease inflammation through its ability to stimulate the CB2 receptor.
Myrcene, another terpene, also has antiinflammatory properties. Based on preclinical evidence, cannabinoids may help bring the system back into homeostasis, protect against damage from AI attacks within the body, slow down overactive T-cell production, and prevent the immune system from being triggered.
How long should someone wait, once they use cannabis, until they drive or work in a safety-sensitive job? Is there a maximum level of THC that a person can reach until they are considered impaired? How can law enforcement professionals test drivers on the roadside, to determine impairment by cannabis? And finally, what happens when drivers mix alcohol with cannabis? The current recommendations from the evidence-based Canadian Low Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines say people should not drive for at least six hours after using cannabis.
But the wait time can be longer depending on the user and the properties of the specific cannabis product used. Police forces across the country have announced that they will start testing saliva THC levels when they suspect someone of cannabis-impaired driving. For now, police officers are using the standardized field sobriety test — a series of roadside challenges, including the horizontal gaze nystagmus test, the walk-and-turn test and the one-legged stand test.
However, as there is no evidence that cannabis affects the same areas of the brain as alcohol, these tests may not reveal impairment or may downplay the degree of impairment. Using the iDAPT Driver Lab, we plan to answer these questions and others, including whether, from a driving perspective, it is safer to treat pain with medical cannabis or opioids. An accidental solution to the opioid crisis? The romance of Italy — Egham, Surrey. Films in translation — voices for all: The poetics of retreat: Meditation and space at the shrine in Mahan — York, York.
Available editions United Kingdom. Cannabis use can impair driving. Andrea Furlan , University of Toronto. Underground lab The iDAPT DriverLab contains a complete Audi A3, degree field-of-view projection screen, surround-sound system, one-of-a-kind rain and glare simulators and a large seven-degree-of-freedom motion system.
Effects of cannabis Cannabis is a plant that contains more than chemicals. Why we need better, smarter, panic-free education on cannabis Drivers under the influence of alcohol tend to drive faster and closer to the cars in front of them. Under the influence, or not? Will there be more motor vehicle collisions? Will there be poisoning? Of course, there is always poisoning Will there be. Anytime a drug is introduced — whether it is a pharmaceutical or a recreational drug — there will be adverse events.
Cannabis legislation is changing quickly in the United States, with more states voting to increase cannabis access every year. As of November , there are 11 states with legalized recreational programs and over 35 with medical marijuana. Medical marijuana implies a tightly regulated, state-run program, in which patients can only obtain medicinal cannabis products for one of a list of approved indications. A physician or other provider must document the indication and details of marijuana therapy, and the patient goes to a designated dispensary, often assigned based on county or municipality of residence.
Decriminalization is a stepping stone on the cannabis access journey, and reduces or eliminates penalties for cannabis-related offenses — but there is no state-regulated industry to license and tax cannabis commerce.
Legalization is the most liberalized access to cannabis that states can choose, and in addition to making adult-use recreational marijuana legit, it establishes a framework for the licensure, enforcement, and taxation of cultivators, processors, wholesalers, and retailers. THC is the reason people use recreational cannabis — it confers the desirable psychoactive effects of relaxation, euphoria, and giddiness that cause uncontrollable giggling.
CBD, on the other hand, has minimal psychoactive effects and is taken for perceived benefits in a variety of medical conditions, ranging from pediatric epilepsy to insomnia. Buyer beware, and stay away! Natural cannabis alkaloids stimulate receptors all over the brain as part of the endocannabinoid system.
This is a funny thing: Probably not so humans can enjoy smoking pot, but because there are endogenous cannabinoids anandamide, for example that mediate important activities like temperature control, appetite, immune response, complex movement, and higher cortical function. So, introducing exogenous cannabis hijacks this homeostasis. Some have raised concerns about the effect of this disruption, particularly on the developing brain. Nonetheless, endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 throughout the brain mediate a variety of effects on mood, cognition, and coordination.
Interestingly, the absence of cannabinoid receptors in the brainstem is the reason used to explain why cannabis overdose does not cause respiratory arrest except, maybe, in children. As numerous as these receptors are, there are also countless formulations of, and methods to use, recreational cannabis. The bud, or flower, is most familiar and is the botanical leaf product generally rolled into a joint or smoked in a pipe, and is still going strong.
Beyond that, the cornucopia of liquids, oils, waxes, resins, and — of course — edibles, abounds. Although terminology varies, concentrates generally refer to highly concentrated liquids which may be used in a vaporizer or vape pen, ingested, or included in an edible recipe to ensure a homogenous distribution of THC instead of a clumped cannabis cookie with one very tricky, THC-rich corner. A concentrate is produced by crushing the leaves and creating a solution of the active ingredients in water, oil, or alcohols , but does not use a heat-extraction process, or volatile organic solvents, like butane or propane.
Lastly, edible products can be commercially produced gummy bears or homemade treats brownies, cookies, etc , and are prepared using any of these precursors.
Molecular Mimicry: The Role of Cannabis in Healing Autoimmune Disease
Based upon evidence that the therapeutic properties of Cannabis preparations are not solely dependent upon the presence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). I recommend trying light doses of different strains of cannabis to deal with the agoraphobia. THC is tricky because it can go the wrong way and make the user. CBD is already legal, but THC is trickier for restaurants and bars.