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Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. Cannabidiol CBD may have some health benefits, and it may also pose risks. Products containing the compound are now legal in many American states where marijuana is not. This article will explain what CBD is, its possible health benefits, how to use it, potential risks, and issues surrounding its legality in the United States.
CBD is one of many compounds, known as cannabinoids, in the cannabis plant. Researchers have been looking at the possible therapeutic uses of CBD.
The concentrations and the uses of these oils vary. THC creates a mind-altering "high" when a person smokes it or uses it in cooking.
This is because THC breaks down when we apply heat and introduce it into the body. Unlike THC, it is not psychoactive. This means that CBD does not change a person's state of mind when they use it.
However, CBD does appear to produce significant changes in the body, and some research suggests that it has medical benefits. The least processed form of the cannabis plant is hemp. Hemp contains most of the CBD that people use medicinally. Hemp and marijuana come from the same plant, Cannabis sativa , but the two are very different. Over the years, marijuana farmers have selectively bred their plants to contain high levels of THC and other compounds that interested them, often because the compounds produced a smell or had another effect on the plant's flowers.
However, hemp farmers have rarely modified the plant. These hemp plants are used to create CBD oil. The human body produces certain cannabinoids on its own. It also has two receptors for cannabinoids, called the CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptors in the brain deal with coordination and movement, pain, emotions, and mood, thinking, appetite, and memories, and other functions. THC attaches to these receptors. CB2 receptors are more common in the immune system.
They affect inflammation and pain. People tend to use prescription or over-the-counter drugs to relieve stiffness and pain, including chronic pain. Authors of a study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that CBD significantly reduced chronic inflammation and pain in some mice and rats.
The researchers suggested that the non-psychoactive compounds in marijuana, such as CBD, could provide a new treatment for chronic pain.
Some promising evidence suggests that CBD use may help people to quit smoking. A pilot study published in Addictive Behaviors found that smokers who used inhalers containing CBD smoked fewer cigarettes than usual and had no further cravings for nicotine. A similar review, published in Neurotherapeutics found that CBD may be a promising treatment for people with opioid addiction disorders.
The researchers noted that CBD reduced some symptoms associated with substance use disorders. These included anxiety , mood-related symptoms, pain, and insomnia. More research is necessary, but these findings suggest that CBD may help to prevent or reduce withdrawal symptoms. After researching the safety and effectiveness of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, the FDA approved the use of CBD Epidiolex as a therapy for two rare conditions characterized by epileptic seizures in The types of seizures that characterize LGS or DS are difficult to control with other types of medication.
The FDA specified that doctors could not prescribe Epidiolex for children younger than 2 years. A physician or pharmacist will determine the right dosage based on body weight. Authors of a review noted that CBD has anti-seizure properties and a low risk of side effects for people with epilepsy. Findings suggested that CBD may also treat many complications linked to epilepsy, such as neurodegeneration, neuronal injury, and psychiatric diseases.
Another study, published in Current Pharmaceutical Design, found that CBD may produce effects similar to those of certain antipsychotic drugs, and that the compound may provide a safe and effective treatment for people with schizophrenia. However, further research is necessary. Some researchers have found that CBD may prove to combat cancer. Authors of a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found evidence that CBD significantly helped to prevent the spread of cancer.
The researchers also noted that the compound tends to suppress the growth of cancer cells and promote their destruction. They pointed out that CBD has low levels of toxicity. They called for further research into its potential as an accompaniment to standard cancer treatments. Doctors often advise people with chronic anxiety to avoid cannabis, as THC can trigger or amplify feelings of anxiousness and paranoia.
However, authors of a review from Neurotherapeutics found that CBD may help to reduce anxiety in people with certain related disorders. According to the review, CBD may reduce anxiety-related behaviors in people with conditions such as:.
The authors noted that current treatments for these disorders can lead to additional symptoms and side effects, which can cause some people to stop taking them. No further definitive evidence currently links CBD to adverse effects, and the authors called for further studies of the compound as a treatment for anxiety.
Type 1 diabetes results from inflammation that occurs when the immune system attacks cells in the pancreas. Research published in by Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation found that CBD may ease this inflammation in the pancreas. This may be the first step in finding a CBD-based treatment for type 1 diabetes. A paper presented in the same year in Lisbon, Portugal, suggested that CBD may reduce inflammation and protect against or delay the development of type 1 diabetes.
Acne treatment is another promising use for CBD. The condition is caused, in part, by inflammation and overworked sebaceous glands in the body. A study published by the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that CBD helps to lower the production of sebum that leads to acne, partly because of its anti-inflammatory effect on the body. Sebum is an oily substance, and overproduction can cause acne.
Initial research published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found that CBD was able to prevent the development of social recognition deficit in participants. This means that CBD could help people in the early stages of Alzheimer's to keep the ability to recognize the faces of people that they know. This is the first evidence that CBD may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Cannabis is legal for either medicinal or recreational use in some American states.
Other states have approved the use of CBD oil as a hemp product but not the general use of medical marijuana. Some state and federal laws differ, and current marijuana and CBD legislation in the U. There is an ever-changing number of states that do not necessarily consider marijuana to be legal but have laws directly related to CBD oil.
The following information is accurate as of May 8, , but the laws change frequently. However, state legislators generally approve the use of CBD oil at various concentrations to treat a range of epileptic conditions. A full list of states that have CBD-specific laws is available here.
Different states also require different levels of prescription to possess and use CBD oil. In Missouri, for example, a person can use CBD of a particular composition if they can show that three other treatment options have failed to treat their epilepsy.
Anyone considering CBD oil should speak with a local healthcare provider. They can provide information about safe CBD sources and local laws surrounding usage. This is one of more than 80 active chemicals in marijuana.
The new product was approved to treat seizures associated with two rare, severe forms of epilepsy in patients two years of age and older. Many small-scale studies have looked into the safety of CBD in adults. They concluded that adults tend to tolerate a wide range of doses well. Researchers have found no significant side effects on the central nervous system , the vital signs, or mood, even among people who used high dosages. The most common side effect was tiredness.
Also, some people reported diarrhea and changes in appetite or weight. Concerning the product that the FDA approved to treat two types of epilepsy, researchers noticed following adverse effects in clinical trials:. The patient information leaflet notes that there is a risk of worsening depression or suicidal thoughts. It is important to monitor anyone who is using this drug for signs of mood change. Research suggests that a person taking the product is unlikely to form a dependency. There is often a lack of evidence regarding the safety of new or alternative treatment options.
Usually, researchers have not performed the full array of tests. Anyone who is considering using CBD should talk to a qualified healthcare practitioner beforehand. When drugs do not have FDA approval, it can be difficult to know whether a product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. Unapproved products may not have the properties or contents stated on the packaging.
It is important to note that researchers have linked marijuana use during pregnancy to impairments in the fetal development of neurons.
Regular use among teens is associated with issues concerning memory, behavior, and intelligence. CBD-based products come in many forms. CBD engages with the endocannabinoid system in many organs throughout the body, helping to reduce inflammation systemically. The therapeutic potential is impressively wide-ranging, as inflammation is involved in a broad spectrum of diseases. The oral use of cannabis and CBD for anxiety appears in a Vedic text dated around BCE, and it is one of the most common uses of the plant across various cultures.
While THC can increase anxiety in some patients, it lowers it in others. However, CBD effects have been shown to consistently reduce anxiety when present in higher concentrations in the cannabis plant. On its own, CBD has been shown in a number of animal and human studies to lessen anxiety. The stress-reducing effect appears to be related to activity in both the limbic and paralimbic brain areas. A research review assessed a number of international studies and concluded that CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety , and in particular social anxiety, in multiple studies and called for more clinical trials.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending cannabidiol or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. At the same time, educated and aware patients can be their own highly informed health consultants. For anxiety, CBD products with a ratio of High-CBD cannabinoids can be very effective in reducing chronic anxiety, treating temporary stress, and protecting the body from the physiological effects of both.
Varieties high in linalool, a terpene shared with lavender, are known to be effective for relieving anxiety. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range, before going to the next, until symptoms subside. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat stress and anxiety with CBD. For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a panic or anxiety attack, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products, including CBD oil, take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect and last six to eight hours.
Herbal vaporizers that use the whole plant are also an effective delivery method. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products. The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD oil effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on eleven studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of anxiety. Elixinol Organic High Potency CBD Capsules Elixinol offers a highly concentrated, high-potency, organic whole-hemp plant CBD oil , which is naturally extracted with carbon dioxide and free of all synthetics and chemicals.
Whole-hemp plant extracts contain synergistic compounds that are believed to enhance the effectiveness and benefits of CBD. Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts.
Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabilizer. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels.
Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition. CBD products with a ratio of Specifically, products made with Valentine X or Electra 4 are more energizing, helping relieve depression. When low energy is an issue, sativa or other stimulating strains can be helpful for improving energy and focus when THC can be tolerated. Varieties that are high in the terpene limonene are recommended for mood elevation. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside.
The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues.
The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression. Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression.
It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low. This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety. The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain.
Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common. The same can be said of cannabis in general. In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain.
Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain. A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals. Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
Oral CBD products with a ratio of Most discussions of treating pain with CBD suggest that finding the right dosage is critical. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range by body weight until symptoms subside. If CBD-dominant products alone are not enough to treat a particular case, products with a higher ratio of THC are sometimes recommended to better manage pain. For day use, more stimulating, sativa varieties with higher concentrations of myrcene could be added to the formula.
In general, for pain, and especially for evening and nighttime, indica strains are favored for their relaxing, sedative effect. A person without experience with THC should use caution and titrate slowly up to higher doses. Research as well as patient feedback have indicated that, in general, a ratio of 4: THC is the most effective for both neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
Each individual is different, however—for some, a 1: Chemotypes high in beta-caryophyllene, myrcene, and linalool provide additional pain relief and increase the effectiveness of other cannabinoids for analgesia. For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect faster on an empty stomach and last six to eight hours.
Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products. When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive. The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body.
Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty for various types of pain , CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy. It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids. Sativex, a cannabis plant—derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC and CBD, has been approved in a number of countries for use to treat specific types of pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Sativex for treatment of central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain.
A study showed that CBD and CBC stimulated descending pain-blocking pathways in the nervous system and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. Sleep Disorders Insomnia, Sleep Apnea Cannabis and sleep have a complex relationship that is only beginning to be understood by science. In general, for most people, indica strains are more relaxing and effective for sleep disorders, whereas sativa strains are more stimulating and tend to keep people awake.
Several studies conducted between and demonstrated the variable effect of different cannabinoids on sleep. Another study found CBD to be wake-inducing for most subjects, though some reported better sleep a few hours after taking it.
However, a significant number of people find THC, even indica strains, will make the mind more active. For these people, CBD oil can benefit them and tends to work well, providing the relaxation and calm for the mental as well as the physical body. For these people, CBD taken at nighttime as part of a bedtime regime produces a restful sleep, not the alertness produced in the daytime. This bidirectional effect of CBD is the result of balancing the endocannabinoid system. In relation to sleep apnea, a animal study observed the ability of THC to restore respiratory stability by modulating serotonin signaling and reducing spontaneous sleep-disordered breathing.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
As mentioned previously, while CBD-dominant products help some people sleep, in others it promotes wakefulness. These tend to be high in myrcene and linalool, a terpene shared with lavender and known to be effective for relaxation.
CBD Oil: A Cure for Depression?
“Take one dropper of CBD per day,” is one of the most common dosage recommendations we hear. For reference, use Honest Marijuana's Simple Dosage Calculator. But, how many drops of CBD oil should you take?. I suffer from chronic pain. What would be the best cbd oil?". If you've ever asked that question, then this guide is for you! We bring you the 25 best CBD oil. The legalization of high-grade CBD hemp oil (as long as it contains less than . As such, you should be looking for products with a THC content as close to.