One of the most overlooked benefits of CBD, the non-psychoactive cannabis compound, is its ability to combat drug and alcohol addiction. However, one of the least understood benefits of CBD oil is its possible effectiveness in treating some symptoms associated with alcohol and drug addiction. Proponents of marijuana legalization say that CBD oil, or cannabidiol oil, cures everything. The fact is, however, that there is very little research.
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Another potential mechanism by which CBD could exert its effects on substances of abuse is by modulating their pharmacokinetic properties. The time-dependent relation suggests that a metabolite of CBD may be responsible for this phenomenon. They hypothesized that this finding was related to hepatic microsomal drug metabolism, via the deactivation of specific cytochrome Ps.
For example, Consroe et al found that pretreatment with CBD produced a diminution in blood alcohol level 34 with no major impact on objective and subjective response to alcohol in humans. While CBD seems to have direct effects on addictive behaviors, its therapeutic potential could also be enhanced by several properties that contribute indirectly to addictive disorders.
For example, its antianxiety properties are well known at doses of — mg 12 , 37 and CBD seems to have antidepressant 11 and anticonvulsant 38 , 39 effects.
Its impact on pain has been investigated, especially in combination with THC in Sativex treatment for chronic pain 40 , 41 and is relevant since chronic pain can induce or perpetuate drug abuse.
CBD has been shown to be a safe compound in both animals and humans, which is of critical importance from a therapeutic point of view. Many studies evaluated the side effect profile of CBD in various contexts and reported no significant or serious adverse events, other than mild sedation and nausea. CBD protects mice from hepatotoxicity induced by cocaine by inactivating Ps, 36 , 45 reduces glutamate- and ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in rats with its antioxidant potential, 19 , 46 and potentially diminishes the neurotoxicity of THC by reducing brain volume loss.
The present systematic review has its own limitations, including the lack of a mechanism to exclude publication bias and the fact that no search for unpublished studies was achieved. A limited number of studies on the direct impact of CBD on addictive behaviors are available in the literature, and the majority use animal models of addiction. Five human studies were found, but the sample sizes of the majority of these were small, and only two of them were randomized, double-blind studies.
Moreover, all substances were not represented in both animal and human studies. The small number of studies in each category and their heterogeneity makes the comparison difficult, if not impossible. CBD is an exogenous cannabinoid that acts on several neurotransmission systems involved in addiction. Animal studies have shown the possible effects of CBD on opioid and psychostimulant addiction, while human studies presented some preliminary evidence of a beneficial impact of CBD on cannabis and tobacco dependence.
CBD has several therapeutic properties on its own that could indirectly be useful in the treatment of addiction disorders, such as its protective effect on stress vulnerability and neurotoxicity. Overall, emerging data remain very limited and are far from being conclusive; well-designed, randomized, controlled trials are necessary at this point to determine whether these properties translate into significant improvements on clinical outcomes in human populations.
The importance of this area of research is emphasized by an increasing number of studies that are currently being conducted in the United States source: The dreadful burden of substance-use disorder worldwide, combined with the clear need for new medication in the addiction field, justifies the requirement of further studies to evaluate the potential of CBD as a new intervention for addictive behaviors.
Gregory Stuart, Editor in Chief. The authors confirm that the funding sources had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication. Other authors disclose no potential conflicts of interest.
Paper subject to independent expert blind peer review by minimum of two reviewers. All editorial decisions made by independent academic editor. Upon submission manuscript was subject to anti-plagiarism scanning. Prior to publication all authors have given signed confirmation of agreement to article publication and compliance with all applicable ethical and legal requirements, including the accuracy of author and contributor information, disclosure of competing interests and funding sources, compliance with ethical requirements relating to human and animal study participants, and compliance with any copyright requirements of third parties.
Conducted the literature search independently: Provided consultation in the event of discrepancies occurring between the results of the two reviewers: Provided summaries of previous research studies and wrote the first draft of the manuscript: All authors contributed to and have approved the final manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Subst Abuse v. Published online May Find articles by Romulus Cata. Find articles by Didier Jutras-Aswad. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Characteristics of excluded studies. Detailed characteristics of included studies. Abstract Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption.
Introduction Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to seek and use drugs with impaired control over substance use despite negative consequences. Data extraction and analysis When available, the following data were retrieved from the included studies: Results We identified 21 potentially eligible studies. Included animal studies Effects of CBD on opioid-related addictive behaviors Studies were found on all three phases of opioid addiction.
Effects of CBD on psychostimulant-addictive behaviors Few studies examined the effects of CBD on the intoxication and relapse phases of psychostimulant addiction. Effects of CBD on cannabis-related addictive behaviors Few studies have examined the effects of CBD administration on various outcomes during the intoxication and relapse phase of cannabis addiction.
Other substances No animal study was found on hallucinogen-, sedative-, tobacco-, or alcohol-addictive behaviors. Effects of CBD on alcohol-addictive behaviors Only the impact of CBD on the intoxication phase of alcohol addiction was extracted from the review of literature. Other substances No human study was found for opioid-, psychostimulant-, hallucinogen-, or sedative-addictive behaviors. Discussion Analysis of studies The present review aims to examine the available evidence showing the effects of CBD on different addictive behaviors, in both animals and humans.
Limitations The present systematic review has its own limitations, including the lack of a mechanism to exclude publication bias and the fact that no search for unpublished studies was achieved. Conclusions CBD is an exogenous cannabinoid that acts on several neurotransmission systems involved in addiction.
Supplementary File Supplementary Table 1. Click here to view. Author Contributions Conducted the literature search independently: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; Glutamate transmission in addiction. Pierce RC, Kumaresan V. The mesolimbic dopamine system: Modulation of the endocannabinoid system: Endocannabinoid signaling system and brain reward: Endocannabinoid signaling and long-term synaptic plasticity.
Blunted psychotomimetic and amnestic effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol in frequent users of cannabis. The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous deltatetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: Anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol derivatives in the elevated plus-maze. Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug.
Braz J Med Biol Res. Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors.
Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. Cannabidiol and - Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward- facilitating effect of morphine: Interactions between cannabidiol and delta9-THC during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats. Differential effect of cannabinol and cannabidiol on THC-induced responses during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats.
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. Effect of some cannabinoids on naloxone-precipitated abstinence in morphine-dependent mice. The quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome: Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances.
Effect of low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on the extinction of cocaine-induced and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference learning in rats.
Psychopharmacology Berl ; 3: Divergent effects of cannabidiol on the discriminative stimulus and place conditioning effects of Delta 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabidiol potentiates Delta 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol THC behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats.
Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: J Clin Pharm Ther. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.
Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: Interaction of cannabidiol and alcohol in humans. Cannabinoid-induced alterations in brain disposition of drugs of abuse. Despite the potential risk, there is some evidence that THC and marijuana may be helpful for cancer patients and other medicinal purposes. In some cases, researchers are working on extracting THC from marijuana for FDA-approved drugs to help with symptoms such as nausea and loss of appetite.
There are differences in the amount of THC in cannabis as well. Hemp is an example of a type of cannabis with a low THC concentration. There are some strains of cannabis with as little as 0. The biggest difference between CBD vs. The big difference in CBD vs. THC boils down to the CB1 receptors, which as was touched on above, are located in the central nervous system.
When someone takes THC, and it binds to the CB1 receptors, it stimulates them, and that activation leads to the effects of the drug, such as the euphoric high or the sense of relaxation.
In a lot of ways, THC replicates the action of a certain neurotransmitter, which is anandamide, and this increases the appetite of the user and leads them to eat more than they would normally because of the pleasure and reward reactions it creates. On the other hand, the difference between CBD vs. Because of the difference in receptor activation, some have dubbed THC the bad cannabinoid and CBD the good one, and there are differences in state laws regarding access to the two substances, but some researchers believe CBD and THC work better together than separately when it comes to using these cannabis derived substances medicinally.
The variances seen when looking at CBD vs. THC boil down to very small anatomical differences between the two. High CBD Cannabis vs. THC and looking at the cannabis plant in general.
In the traditional cannabis market where people wanted these products to get high, the goal was to use strains of the plant with high levels of THC. However, as cannabis has increasingly become seen as a medicinal option, there is more focus on sourcing strains that are high in CBD and low in THC. Another common question people have when looking at CBD vs.
According to the NIH, there are more than 80 active cannabinoid chemicals in the marijuana plant, and CBD is only one of those. The NIH goes on to say that while there is still the need for in-depth clinical studies regarding the effects of CBD and CBD benefits for specific conditions, preclinical research has shown there may be some positive effects of this substance.
There are early findings that show they could help when people are addicted to drugs such as morphine and heroin. At present, research on the effects of CBD is focused on the treatment of substance use disorders, looking at whether it could be helpful to help treat neuropathic pain and looking at the use of CBD as a way to help with seizure disorders.
Helping Anxiety or Making It Worse? As was touched on above, one of the primary reasons people use CBD, particularly high CBD strains, is to treat anxiety. There has been promising research showing that CBD, particularly high CBD strains, may work to help people reduce their symptoms of stress and anxiety, however as with everything else related to CBD, more research will need to be done.
Proponents of using high CBD strains for the treatment of anxiety symptoms say it can help with panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD and mild to moderate depression.
This allows for more transmission of serotonin signals by the brain, which is believed to help boost the mood of people taking these drugs and also reduce their anxiety.
So if there is the potential for CBD to help symptoms of anxiety and depression, are there particular strains that are even more effective than others? There are many different CBD-high strains available for people who are considering the use of CBD as a way to treat anxiety.
For example, there are some products that have 11 percent or more CBD, and it can be a great way to take the edge off anxiety or to boost moods when you have depression.
So to sum up, if you wonder whether high CBD strains help anxiety or make it worse, they do tend to make it better as long as the strain is high only in CBD and not simultaneously high in THC. Strains of cannabis high in THC can amplify symptoms of anxiety in some people. While it could seem like CBD oil has excellent promise in treating a variety of serious conditions, people wonder whether or not there are side effects.
Some of the possible side effects that may occur in a few users can include mild low blood pressure, slowed thoughts or movements, dry mouth, lightheadedness, and sedation.
There may also be a small percentage of people who notice effects on their mood or their thoughts when using CBD oil, similar to what they would experience with psychoactive forms of cannabis.
CBD and Cancer Along with treating conditions like epilepsy and anxiety, there is also a lot of research and interest regarding CBD and cancer.
People wonder with CBD and cancer if it can help. Medical marijuana is frequently used by people with cancer, primarily as a way to mitigate the symptoms of chemotherapy and other treatments such as nausea and vomiting, and it can also be used to help with pain relief more naturally with cancer patients.
So what about CBD and cancer? According to the NIH National Cancer Center, there are substances such as dronabinol and nabilone that are approved by the FDA for the treatment of side effects related to cancer, and this highlights the fact that there may be therapeutic benefits with cannabinoids. In general, the NIH National Cancer Center says that medicinal cannabis may help people who live with cancer by providing pain relief, better quality of sleep, and appetite stimulation, and there are more doctors that are seeking out the use of cannabis and cannabinoid products to help cancer patients.
Along with helping treat some symptoms of cancer, the NIH National Cancer Center also points out that studies done in animals have shown that the use of cannabinoids may help protect against tumor development, so they are believed to have some antitumor effects.
Mental Health First Aid. Don't wait another day. Help is a phone call away. What is CBD and what is cannabidiol? Is CBD hemp oil marijuana? Are CBD and marijuana the same thing?
What are the effects of CBD? What are the benefits of CBD? Does CBD help anxiety or make it worse? Can CBD help with cancer? Table of Contents 1. What is Cannabidiol CBD? CBD and Cancer Collapse table of contents. Where does CBD come from and how is it used? The following are some key facts that can be valuable to know about CBD hemp oil: Medical marijuana and industrial hemp are both derived from the Cannabis Sativa L.
So how does CBD work? Essentially, as with other compounds found in the hemp plant, when someone uses CBD, it attaches to certain receptors in their brain. Some of the general side effects of THC can include: Though marijuana and THC are so commonly used throughout the U.
CBD or Not CBD, That is the Pain/Substance Abuse Treatment Question
A collection of published research articles, videos, and other educational resources about addiction, alcoholism, and CBD (cannabidiol). With CBD pens, edibles, shatter, medicines and oils continuing to on the scales of the Addiction Research Centre Inventory,” it continued. Is CBD an effective means of curbing opioid drug addiction? What about fighting addiction to amphetamines or cigarettes? In short, yes.