Ice water extraction methods will be employed by the GOOD LLC, and will be Due to the density and size of the trichomes, they will Required random sampling, analysis, and recording of certain . decarboxylated, to remove the COOH carboxyl group of atoms, which exits in the form of H2O and CO2. Due to their special structural features, extraction and isolation of . tion of saponins, cold extractions with ethanol–water solutions used to effect complete separation and isolation of pure individual of the extraction include drying, par ticle size reduction, and defat- .. macroporous resin column. Fresh frozen ice water hash (Photo: @hashcelona) BHO which will always contain a certain, however minuscule, amount of solvent. Solventless extractions have the added benefit of being almost completely . in which to carry out the extraction by which the trichomes sink and the plant matter floats.
Extraction (specific-sized glands) H2O (water extraction) resin
The disadvantage to these extractions, at least from the point of view of a hash connoisseur, is that the extreme temperatures being used lead to the leaf matter becoming so brittle that if not treated with utmost care It can break down to form a fine dust that contaminates the end result, often leading to hash with a green tint.
Fresh frozen dry sift is made with freshly-harvested frozen buds, tumbled in a pollinator machine adapted for use in a sub-zero environment a chest freezer or an industrial freezer unit and dried via liophlization in a freeze-drier after separation. This means that the cold chain is uninterrupted throughout the entire process of extraction and drying, resulting in a total retention of terpenes and some of the most intensely flavoured extracts that this writer has ever had the pleasure of tasting.
These are all terms used to describe the same product, cannabis resin extracted from the plant material using very cold water, ice cubes and agitation. Like most things, the quality depends on the starting material used, and bubble hash can be of varying quality, with the lowest grade being dark brown pressed resin, little better in appearance and purity than import hash, but on the other hand, when well-cultivated flowers are extracted with the utmost care, the end result can be of the utmost quality, an exquisite golden caviar approaching BHO and Rosin in appearance , terpene content and cannabinoid content.
Indeed, many connoisseurs consider bubble hash to be the finest of all concentrates. Unarguably, H2O is indeed a solvent and a great variety of things will dissolve in it. However, this mechanical separation technique involves employing water not as a solvent, but simply as a medium that allows us to create the perfect conditions in which to carry out the extraction by which the trichomes sink and the plant matter floats. At no point are the resin heads dissolved in the water for later recovery, and while a certain amount of water-soluble terpenes may be taken on by the water, this cannot in any way be considered a solvent extraction.
Ice water extract made with freshly cut plants frozen immediately after harvest, this makes the most terpene-rich and therefore most intense-tasting hash, and while bubble hash made with dried and cured flowers may boast less flavour, it results in a more physically stable product that is far less likely to degrade during long-term storage. We did a head-to-head comparison between fresh frozen and bubble hash made with dried flowers, check it out here. Possibly the newest method of solvent less extraction, Rosin involves extracting a full-melt oil of high purity from flowers or hash using nothing more than heat and pressure.
This revolution democratised oil-production, placing it in the hands of anybody w, no longer was it necessary to face the risks and danger of butane extractions, or to spend vast sums of money on closed-loop extraction systems to get high quality resin products suitable for dabbing. These days the industry has expanded and the market is full of rosin presses suitable for all pockets, from heavy duty industrial presses capable of exerting more than 30 tons of pressure for the professionals, to small hand-held units ideal for beginners.
The final texture of rosin can vary greatly from shatter to wax to budder to sauce, and this well depend on many factors, from the condition of the starting material, the genetics used, temperature of press and subsequent storage. As a general rule, flower rosin will be tastier , while hash rosin will be more potent , but there will always be exceptions to this rule. This is produced with cannabis buds , and the best results will come from flowers that have been dried but not cured for very long, as the longer the cure, the more the trichomes will oxidise and lend a darker colour to the extract.
Find out how to make it for yourself here. As the name implies, this is Rosin pressed using Hashish as the starting material. HRG believes in representing only quality manufacturers which exhibit a dedication to the production of quality products, works to enhance the industry they serve, and displays a reputation of integrity and ethics.
The product lines represented are the leaders in their respective industries. Flash frozen fresh flowers! Harvest season is upon us! Subzero temperatures are preferred when making ANY extraction.
Bubble while you tumble Turn off your Resinator. Get your bubble on! Castles made of Kief. Biomass reduction is the name of the game We will come out to your farm or facility so you can see this amazing product in action.
Interested in a live demo? Are you ready for this harvest season? Stop by to say high! The Resinator XL fits nicely in the back of a 4-Runner. Passing TSA security screens is always fun Making waves Curls of Kief! How do you CO2? Kief by the bucket.
This is a high-volume extraction production. Now we are going to put this Kief it into a closed loop bizzybee system to make some holy water diamonds. Just another day at the office! When extracting from sugarleaf our OG model has a 3 lb capacity while the XL model has a 15 lb capacity. When trimming or under H2O extraction our OG model with a 1.
We only inject liquid CO2 for 30 seconds to one minute while when trimming, allowing our drum to spin for one additional minute per lb.
Histological analysis depicted that T. Comparison of sulfuric and oxalic acid anodizing for preparation of thermal control coatings for spacecraft. The development of thermal control surfaces, which maintain stable solar absorptivity and infrared emissivity over long periods, is challenging due to severe conditions in low-Earth orbit LEO.
Some candidate coatings are second-surface silver-coated Teflon; second-surface, silvered optical solar reflectors made of glass or quartz; and anodized aluminum. Sulfuric acid anodized and oxalic acid anodized aluminum was evaluated under simulated LEO conditions. Oxalic acid anodizing shows promise of greater stability in LEO over long missions, such as the 30 years planned for the Space Station. However, sulfuric acid anodizing shows lower solar absorptivity. The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al.
The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide.
Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties.
Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. The majority of renal calculi kidney stones are calcium stones. Oxidative damage to renal tubular epithelial cells induced by reactive oxygen species ROS is the predominant cause of calcium oxalate stone formation.
Hyperoside Hyp is a flavonol glycoside extracted from medicinal plants and appears to exhibit potent antioxidant activity in various cells. The increased activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH oxidase in these cells explained this observation, as it is a major source of ROS. The results demonstrated that, in the OA group, the adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals and lactate dehydrogenase LDH were significantly increased, and MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was inhibited, compared with the control, which indicated that severe injury of cells was induced by OA.
Oxalic acid is believed to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosols. However, as a common organic acid , the understanding of the larger clusters formed by gas phase oxalic acid with multiple ammonia molecules is incomplete. We found that oxalic acid forms relatively stable clusters with ammonia molecules, and that ionization events play a key role.
However, with increasing number of ammonia molecules, the concentration of clusters decreases gradually. Additionally, clusters of oxalic acid with ammonia molecules are predicted to form favorably in low temperature conditions and show high Rayleigh scattering intensities.
Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake.
The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. Capillary electrophoresis CE and ion chromatography IC were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods.
Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid , heat extracted , and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified.
Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine. Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal.
This paper presents results supporting the existence of a natural source of oxalic acid over the oceans. The oxalate concentration showed a clear seasonal trend at both sites, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in fall-winter, being consistent with other marine biogenic aerosol components e. The observed oxalate was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with both a submicrometer and a supermicrometer mode, unlike the dominant submicrometer mode encountered in many polluted environments.
Given its mass size distribution, the results suggest that over remote oceanic regions oxalate is produced through a combination of different formation processes. It is proposed that the cloud-mediated oxidation of gaseous glyoxal, recently detected over remote oceanic regions, may be an important source of submicrometer oxalate in the marine boundary layer. Supporting this hypothesis, satellite-retrieved glyoxal column concentrations over the two sampling sites exhibited the same seasonal concentration trend of oxalate.
Furthermore, chemical box model simulations showed that the observed submicrometer oxalate concentrations were consistent with the in-cloud oxidation of typical marine air glyoxal mixing ratios, as retrieved by satellite measurements, at both sites.
Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron Fe mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids , but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid , acetic acid , and oxalic acid , respectively.
The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe- oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing.
The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed Arundo donax L. Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed Arundo donax L.
A role for oxalic acid generation in ozone-induced signallization in Arabidopis cells. Ozone O 3 is an air pollutant with an impact increasingly important in our industrialized world.
It affects human health and productivity in various crops. We provide the evidences that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana with O 3 results in ascorbate-derived oxalic acid production.
Using cultured cells of A. We confirmed that O 3 reacts with ascorbate in the culture, thus resulting in production of oxalic acid and this could be part of the O 3 -induced signalling pathways that trigger programmed cell death. Contents of anti-nutritional components tannins and oxalic acid were determined in samples of forest fruits: Study revealed that blueberry and raspberry fruits collected on potentially polluted area were characterized by higher tannins contents than those harvested on potentially not polluted area.
Oxalic acid level in studied material indicated its significantly higher concentration in wild strawberry fruits collected both from not exposed and polluted areas as compared to raspberry and blueberry. Tannins and oxalic acid contents in analyzed berries may be accepted as low and safe for human's health.
Photoreduction of mercury metal Hg using catalyst of oxalic acid from cellulose of rice husks Oryza sativa L. Photoreduction of mercury metal using catalyst of oxalic acid from cellulose of rice husks Oryza sativa L.
The purpose of this research is to enhance photoreduction of mercury metal using catalyst of oxalic acid from cellulose of rice husks Oryza sativa L.
Photoreduction process is carried out in a closed reactor equipped with UV light and magnetic stirrer.
All treatments are followed by centrifugation for 15 minutes, then the concentration of Hg residual in the solution is measured by mercury analyzer.
The research results showed that addition of oxalic acid concentration from the cellulose of rice husks Oryza sativa L. It can reduce the concentration of mercury metal II by This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine MCC.
Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge.
The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone.
This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the. Based on powder X-ray diffraction data the structure was solved. The formation pathway of the reaction was studied in situ using combined synchrotron PXRD and Raman spectroscopy. Using oxalic acid dihydrate the initially neat grinding turned into a rapid self-accelerated liquid-assisted grinding process by the release of crystallization water.
Under these conditions, the cocrystal was formed directly within two minutes. Heterogeneous photochemistry of oxalic acid on Mauritanian sand and Icelandic volcanic ash. Teragram quantities of crustal and volcanic aerosol are released into the atmosphere on an annual basis.
Although these substrates contain photoactive metal oxides, little is known about the role that they may play in catalyzing the heterogeneous phototransformation of semivolatile organic species. In the present study, we have investigated oxalic acid photochemistry at the surface of Fe 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , Mauritanian sand, and Icelandic volcanic ash in the presence and absence of oxygen using a photochemical Knudsen cell reactor. Illumination of all sample types resulted in the production of gas-phase CO 2.
In the case of Mauritanian sand, the production of gas-phase CO 2 scaled with the loss of surface oxalic acid. In the absence of oxygen, the production of CO 2 by the sand and ash films scaled with the absorption spectrum of iron oxalate , which suggests that the reaction is at least in part iron-mediated.
The presence of oxygen suppressed CO 2 production at the Fe 2 O 3 surface, enhanced CO 2 production at the Mauritanian sand surface, and did not have a net effect upon CO 2 production at the Icelandic ash surface. These different oxygen dependencies imply that oxalic acid photochemistry at the authentic surfaces under study was not solely iron-mediated.
Experiments at the TiO 2 surface, which showed enhanced CO 2 production from oxalic acid in the presence of oxygen, suggest that Ti-mediated photochemistry played an important role. In summary, these results provide evidence that solid-phase aerosol photochemistry may influence the atmospheric lifetime of oxalic acid in arid regions, where its removal via wet deposition is insignificant.
The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.
High yields of hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars are critical in obtaining economical conversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. To optimize pretreatment conditions, we evaluated oxalic acid loading rates, treatment temperatures and times in a 23 full factorial design. Response-surface analysis revealed an optimal oxalic acid pretreatment Urinary and plasma oxalate during ingestion of pure ascorbic acid: Daily ingestion of 8 g of pure ascorbic acid by 8 normal subjects for 7 days did not, in contrast to previous reports in the literature, significantly alter urinary or plasma oxalate during or after ingestion.
When urine with raised ascorbate values was heated at degrees C for 30 min, a significant increase in urinary oxalate concentration was observed. Plasma ascorbate reached a mean value during ingestion of 3.
Urinary citrate excretion significantly decreased during the first 4 days of ascorbic acid ingestion; however, the urinary inhibitory activity of calcium oxalate crystal growth was not significantly altered.
Urinary and serum urate as well as urinary calcium and magnesium were unaltered by ingestion of the vitamin supplement. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi: The increase in the use of non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives in response to environmental concerns has been accompanied by interest in copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Meruliporia, Gloeophyllum, Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology.
Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Response to oxalic acid as a resistance assay for Sclerotinia minor in peanut.
Response to oxalic acid was evaluated as a potential assay for screening peanut breeding lines for resistance to Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor. Detached stems of seven Spanish- and six runner-type peanut cultivars and advanced breeding lines, varying in resistance to Sclerotinia bl Effect of oxalic acid pretreatment of wood chips on manufacturing medium-density fiberboard. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid OA wood chips pretreatment prior to refining, which is done to reduce energy used during the refining process.
Escherichia coli has several mechanisms for surviving low-pH stress. The combination of oxalate adaptation and oxalate supplementation in the challenge medium resulted in increased survival over adaptation or oxalate in the challenge medium alone.
We theorize that this oxalate ATR could enhance the pathogenesis of virulent E. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids.
The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets GO treated respectively with tartaric acid , malic acid and oxalic acid , have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR , Ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. Interestingly, the number of sp 2 domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acid acid acid whereas the steric hindrance SH decreases and the ionization constant IC differs among these three acids.
Furthermore, the specific capacitances Cs of GO have been greatly promoted from 2. This finding agrees well with the spectra result of the tendency of surface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN.
Elevated pulse wave velocity PWV and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis HD patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones.
Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. Isolation of fecal O. In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid , glucose and triglyceride. This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites.
Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase.
To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale.
The dissolution of nickel ferrite in oxalic acid and in ferrous oxalate-oxalic acid aqueous solution was studied. Nickel ferrite was synthesized by thermal decomposition of a mixed tartrate; the particles were shown to be coated with a thin ferric oxide layer. Dissolution takes place in two stages, the first one corresponding to the dissolution of the ferric oxide outer layer and the second one being the dissolution of Ni 1.
The kinetics of dissolution during this first stage is typical of ferric oxides: The rate of nickel dissolution in oxalic acid is higher than that in bunsenite by a factor of 8, whereas hematite is more reactive by a factor of 9 in the absence of Fe II and 27 in the presence of Fe II. It may be concluded that oxalic acid operates to dissolve iron, and the ensuing disruption of the solid framework accelerates the release of nickel.
Copyright Academic Press. The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements.
These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.
The Varroa destructor varroasis is a very serious parasite of honeybee Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Varroa treatment using organic acid oxalic acid in Algeria identifying its side effects on bee colonies. Treatment was conducted in one apiary consisting 30 colonies kept in Langstroth hives kind.
Oxalic acid dripped directly on bees 5ml of this solution of oxalic acid per lane occupied by a syringe. Three doses were tested: The experiments revealed that clear variation in the treatment efficiency among colonies that this might be related to brood presence therefore in order to assure the treatment efficiency oxalic acid should be part of a bigger strategy of Varroa treatment.
Microwave-assisted organic acids extraction of chromate copper arsenate CCA -treated southern pine. The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate CCA -treated southern pine wood samples with two different organic acids i. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris.
Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought.
The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells.
Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRKE cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner.
The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis. Degradation of oxalic acid by the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans plays an important role in interacting with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
Coniothyrium minitans is a mycoparasite of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces a virulence factor oxalic acid OA which is toxic to plants and also to C. In this study, two oxalate decarboxyla Spectroscopic evidence for organic diacid complexation with dissolved silica in aqueous systems—I. Increased solubility of quartz and mobilization in contaminated groundwater due to the complexation with dissolved organic acids has been recently proposed [Bennett and Siegel, Nature, — ].
Using laser Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, we have examined mixed solutions of oxalic and silicic acids at near neutral pH in the tenth molar concentration ranges in an attempt to directly observe the proposed organo-silicate complexes.
These data support the observation that organic diacids can lead to enhanced solubility of quartz in hydrogeological systems. Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.
To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate , magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates.
Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings. The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightii reduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney.
The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies. The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals.
Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong potential to develop as a therapeutic option to prevent recurrence of urolithiasis.
Extraction and estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate crystals in the foliage of conifer and hardwood trees. The main goal of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and indirect estimation of the quantity of calcium oxalate CaOx in the foliage of trees. Foliar tissue was collected from a single tree of each species five conifers and five hardwoods for comparison of extractions in different solvents using 10 replicates per species from the same pool of Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides.
Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses was developed in a series of three reactors. Nitrogen oxides formed were used to manufacture oxalic acid in the second and third reactor. Parameters affecting the reaction were determined to be, air flow rate, temperature, the amount of V2O5 catalyst and the concentrations of molasses and H2SO4.
The maximum yields in the second and third reactors were Also, kinetic experiments were performed and the first-order rate constants were determined for the glucose consumption rate. Nitrogen oxides in off-gases from the final reactor were absorbed in water and concentrated sulphuric acid and reused in the following reactors giving slightly lower yields under similar conditions.
In this novel way, it was possible to recover NO x and to prevent air pollution. Meanwhile, it was possible to reduce the unit cost of reactant for oxalic acid production. A new approach to study cadmium complexes with oxalic acid in soil solution. This study presents a new analytical approach for the determination of heavy metals complexed to low-molecular-weight-organic acids in soil solutions, which combines the sensitivity of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry DPASV with the molecular insight gained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ESI-MS.
The combination of these analytical methods allows the investigation of such complexes in complex matrixes. On the voltammograms of the soil solutions, in addition to the expected complexes of oxalic acid with cadmium and lead, respectively, also peaks belonging to mixed complexes of cadmium, lead, and oxalic acid OAH 2 were observed. Some of these complexes were also identified in the ESI mass spectra taken from the soil solutions.
Induction of an oxalate decarboxylase in the filamentous fungus Trametes versicolor by addition of inorganic acids. OxDC was induced by addition of inorganic acids including hydrochloric acid , sulfuric acid , and phosphoric acid to culture media.
The results showed that all the acids could enhance OxDC expression. The activity of the acid -induced OxDC rose continuously. All of the OxDC volumetric activities induced by the inorganic acids were higher than OxDC productivity was around 4. The highest specific activity against total protein was 3. The growth of mycelia was inhibited slightly when the pH values in culture media was around 2.
Emission of CO2 from industrial processes poses a myriad of environmental problems. One such polluter is the portland cement PC industry. PC is the main ingredient in concrete which is the ubiquitous binding material for construction works. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. There have long been efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete.
Among the many ways, one is to bind CO2 to the phases in the cement-water paste, oxides, hydroxides, and silicates of calcium, during early hydration or while in service. The problem is that obtaining calcium oxide cheaply requires the decarbonation of limestone and the uptake of CO2 is slow and limited mainly to the surface of the concrete due to its low gas permeability.
Hence, a faster method to bind more CO2 is needed. Acid -base AB cements are fast-setting, high-strength systems that have high durability in many environments in which PC concrete is vulnerable.
They are made with a powder base such as MgO and an acid or acid salt, like phosphates. Despite certain advantages over PC cement systems, AB cements are not feasible, due to their high acid content.
Also, the phosphoric acid used comes from non-renewable sources of phosphate. A potential way to reduce the drawbacks of using phosphates could be to use organic acids. Oxalic acid or its salts could react with the proper powder base to give concrete that could be used for infrastructure hence that would have very high demand.
In addition, methods to produce oxalates from CO2, even atmospheric, are becoming widespread and more economical. The base can also be an industrial byproduct to further lower the environmental impact. This study describes the use of oxalic acid and industrial byproducts to obtain mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of PC mortars. Characterization of metabolic network of oxalic acid biosynthesis through RNA seq data analysis of developing spikes of finger millet Eleusine coracana: Deciphering the role of key genes involved in oxalate formation in relation to grain calcium accumulation.
Sequence alignment of identified genes showed high similarity with their respective homolog in rice except for OXO and GLO. Transcript abundance FPKM reflects the higher accumulation of identified genes in GP-1 low calcium genotype as compared to GP high calcium genotype which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, indicating differential oxalate formation in both genotypes. Determination of oxalic acid and tartaric acid content in developing spikes explain that higher oxalic acid content in GP-1 however, tartaric acid content was more in GP Higher calcium content in GP and lower oxalate accumulation may be due to the diversion of more ascorbic acid into tartaric acid and may correspond to less formation of calcium oxalate.
Our results suggest that more than one pathway for oxalic acid biosynthesis might be present in finger millet with probable predominance of ascorbate-tartarate pathway rather than glyoxalate- oxalate conversion. Thus, finger millet can be use as an excellent model system for understanding more specific role of nutrients-antinutrients interactions, as evident from the present study. Removal of oxalic acid , oxamic acid and aniline by a combined photolysis and ozonation process. Aniline ANL , an aromatic amine, oxalic acid OXA and oxamic acid OMA , short-chain carboxylic acids , were chosen as model organic pollutants for testing the combined effect of neat photolysis and ozonation in the treatment of aqueous effluents.
In order to better understand the results, single ozonation and neat photolysis were also carried out. On the other hand, OXA complete degradation was observed in less than an hour when ozone and light were used simultaneously. A significant synergetic effect was observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants by the simultaneous use of ozone and light, since the mineralization rate of combined method is higher than the sum of the mineralization rates of the individual treatments.
The promising results observed in the degradation of the selected contaminants are paving the way to the application of photo-ozonation in the treatment of wastewater containing this type of pollutants. Primary properties of MDF using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid pretreated rice straw particles.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect the oxalic acid OA and steam pretreatment on the primary properties of rice straw medium-density fiberboard MDF. The results show the IB strength increased about 9. Oxidation of ferrocene by thiocyanic acid in the presence of ammonium oxalate. A flake-like crystalline salt was obtained from the reaction of ferrocene, oxalic acid and ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were in agreement with the preliminary X-ray molecular structure.
The compound consists of four ferrocenium moieties and a counter anion consisting of two tetraisothiocyanato iron III linked by an oxalato bridging group in such a way that both iron central atoms adopt octahedral geometries. Theoretical study on the structure and stabilities of molecular clusters of oxalic acid with water. The importance of aerosols to humankind is well-known, playing an integral role in determining Earth's climate and influencing human health.
Despite this fact, much remains unknown about the initial events of nucleation. In this work, the molecular properties of common organic atmospheric pollutant oxalic acid and its gas phase interactions with water have been thoroughly examined. Initially, cooperative binding is predicted to be the most important factor in nucleation, but as the clusters grow, dipole cancellations are found to play a pivotal role.
The clusters of oxalic acid hydrated purely with water tend to produce extremely stable and neutral core systems. Free energies of formation and atmospheric implications are discussed.
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