Introduction. From brownies to medicated muscle creams, you can find cannabis concentrates in hundreds of products. Concentrates are products made from. Welcome to the rapidly expansive world of cannabis concentrates! Simply put, concentrates are cannabis-derived extracts that contain concentrated amounts of . As the name suggests, concentrates are concentrated THC and CBD extracts from cannabis flowers, which can also contain other.
Adding powdered kief to your bowl, or wrapping wax around a joint, are the most cost-effective methods to using cannabis concentrates. Vaping is the most discreet and portable option for consuming cannabis concentrates.
The most common form of vaping is a pre-filled cartridge that attaches to a battery. The cartridge contains a heating element that comes in contact with the battery and heats the concentrate when activated. This battery-and-cartridge combination is collectively referred to as a vape pen. Standard vape pens are operated by pressing a button or, in the case of a buttonless pen, simply taking a drag from the mouthpiece of the cartridge.
Using a handheld vaporizer is another portable method to consume cannabis concentrates. With a vaporizer, you manually fill a chamber with any type of concentrate and attach the chamber to a battery.
The chamber typically contains a heating coil that turns the concentrate into a vapor when the user presses a button. Unlike a dab rig, this method does not require any additional equipment, but still gives you the ability to pre-fill the chamber with any type of concentrate and use it on demand.
Concentrates are made one of two ways: During the physical separation process, trichome glands are removed from the cannabis starting material using a physical action, like shaking or pressing. Think of the trichome glands as fruit on a citrus tree: When creating dry sift , for example, cannabis is shaken through a series of screens in specific sizes to ensure only the trichome heads make it through to the final product. Rosin is created using a targeted combination of heat and pressure to squeeze the desired compounds out of the plant.
The key concept of physical separation is that a direct physical action results in the expression of trichomes. All solvent extractions use the same basic workflow: This solution must be further refined until nothing but the desired compounds remain. Due to the volatility of these solvents, technicians typically use closed-loop extraction systems, which allow them to safely control elements like temperature and pressure in order to achieve the optimal result.
Depending on the solvent selected, the resulting extract is put into a vacuum oven to ensure complete solvent removal prior to consumption.
Different textures are the result of deliberate steps taken before or after the initial extraction process. Shatter is one of the most versatile textures. In fact, many other textures, such as budder and crumble, start off as shatter.
These textures are the result of agitating terpene-rich shatter into a more creamy consistency. To achieve this frosting-like texture, technicians whip the shatter under low and even temperatures to introduce and redistribute air molecules.
The volume of these air molecules determines the density of the resulting texture. Crystalline is a transparent or semi-transparent cannabis concentrate that may resemble coarse decorative sparkling sugar or kosher salt. Multiple methods can be used to produce crystalline, but they all follow the same basic principles of crystallization. An example of crystallization is making rock candy. The resulting solution cools a bit, then flavor and color is added.
A prepared stick is lowered into the solution. Over time, crystals form and grow on the prepared stick, eventually yielding the desired product. Crystallization is a process where a chemical solid is mixed with a liquid to create an initial solution. Any impurities are removed from the initial solution, and the extract is then mixed with another solvent under a different set of conditions to start the formation of pure crystals.
Distillates are made by exposing a winterized and decarboxylated extract to heat and vacuum, which promotes the separation of cannabinoids based on their different boiling points. Concentrates Introduction What are Concentrates and Extracts? Introduction From brownies to medicated muscle creams, you can find cannabis concentrates in hundreds of products.
Shatter, distillate, crumble, badder, crystalline, rosin, dry sift Concentrates let you experience cannabis in a multitude of ways; they come in a variety of textures and can be consumed using several different methods. What are Concentrates and Extracts? Trichome-covered cannabis These frosty appendages coat the entire surface of the plant, especially the flower buds.
Is there a difference between a concentrate and an extract? Rosin, dry sift and kief are examples of concentrates that are made without using solvents. Certain terms may be used on labels and descriptions on concentrate products to identify: The type of cannabis plant materials used to make the concentrate The processing techniques The resulting textures The intended consumption methods Input Materials Everything starts off with cannabis plant material.
Process Type Cannabis concentrates are products created by the accumulation of trichomes the gland that makes the cannabinoids and terpenes.
Consistencies Once the cannabinoids and terpenes have been removed from the plant material, the resulting solution can take a variety of forms. The many concentrate consistencies Dabbing Equipment Concentrates are safe, yet potent. Carb cap, quartz banger, titanium nail, dabber with carb cap, dab rig with quartz banger.
Shatter, Budder, Badder, and Crumble Shatter is known for its brittle, glass-like texture. Smoking Methods A cannabis concentrate can be consumed in a variety of ways, from sprinkling it on a bowl or adding it to a joint for added potency, to vaporizing them using a dab rig or portable vape pen. Topping Your Flower Adding powdered kief to your bowl, or wrapping wax around a joint, are the most cost-effective methods to using cannabis concentrates.
Torch, dabber and carb cap combo with a dab on the end, dab rig with quartz banger Vaporizers Pre-filled Vape Pen Vaping is the most discreet and portable option for consuming cannabis concentrates. Handheld Vaporizer Using a handheld vaporizer is another portable method to consume cannabis concentrates.
What Are the Main Extraction Types? Liquid Solvent Extraction All solvent extractions use the same basic workflow: Closed-Loop system Due to the volatility of these solvents, technicians typically use closed-loop extraction systems, which allow them to safely control elements like temperature and pressure in order to achieve the optimal result.
Shatter Shatter is one of the most versatile textures. Badder, Budder These textures are the result of agitating terpene-rich shatter into a more creamy consistency. Crystalline Crystalline is a transparent or semi-transparent cannabis concentrate that may resemble coarse decorative sparkling sugar or kosher salt. Distillate Distillates are made by exposing a winterized and decarboxylated extract to heat and vacuum, which promotes the separation of cannabinoids based on their different boiling points.
Products and How to Consume. Cannabis and Your Body. What would you like to learn about? Return Home View All. Cattle milk production systems based on intensive grazing or cut forages occur especially in temperate Europe and N America, but also in parts of Oceania.
Intensive zero-grazing systems based on irrigation occur mainly in semi-arid and arid areas Israel, California, Saudia Arabia , utilizing irrigated fodders and concentrate feeds. Semi-intensive and small-holder cattle and buffalo milk production systems occur quite widely within both rainfed and irrigated mixed farming systems.
They can occur in all agro-climatic zones but are less common in the arid and semi-arid zones unless partially irrigated because of problems of feed and water supply. For beef production, intensive grazing and cereal feeding systems also occur mainly in the temperate zones.
Mixed semi-intensive and extensive systems with or without intensive fattening phases occur mainly in semi-arid zones, with some in sub-humid zones for example in S America but limited by tsetse distribution in Africa. Thus, it is evident that a wide variety of concentrate feeding systems occurs within each of the broad classes of farming systems outlined by Sere Aggregate feed demand and utilization within broad farming systems and regional zones is thus difficult to estimate though attempted in Section 1.
Table 2 Occurrence of main livestock production systems utilizing concentrate feeds within farming systems classified by FAO 1. Poultry eggs, poultry meat, pig meat: See Sere for definition of farming systems, Table 1 for description of livestock production systems, and Appendix 1 for definition of world regions. NB Table does not include intensive or extensive grazing-based milk or beef production systems which do not involve the use of concentrate feeds eg New Zealand dairy cattle, extensive ranching and pastoralism.
According to the most recent global review FAO , concentrate feeds constituted about a quarter of all feeds fed to livestock in the mid s including roughages and grazing on a grain equivalent basis. This proportion was growing at the rate of about one percentage point every five years to that time. Cereals constituted half to three-quarters of this concentrate, with most of the remainder provided by cereal milling residues and oilmeals including fishmeal.
Other concentrates are provided by ingredients such as molasses, dried grass and other forage products, milk and other animal derived products, and agro-industrial by-products such as citrus pulp, sugar beet pulp and brewing wastes. Estimates of the total quantities of these components are not readily available. It may be noted that these data sources differ in origin, coverage of countries and commodities, and in some definitions of commodities, as outlined in Appendix 2; comparisons between databases of quantities of commodities utilized or traded is thus not always possible, though comparisons within datasets of regional proportional utilization and time trends will be more reliable.
Analyses are presented in following sections in two different regional classifications. Where possible, data are provided within geographical regions of the world see Table 5 below. Information on the utilization of feeds by livestock production systems in Section 2. Details of classifications of regions and systems are provided in Appendix 1. The analyses presented focus mainly on commodities derived from crop production. These commodities provide the greatest proportion of concentrate feed resources and are presumed to represent the greatest potential environmental impact of the demand for concentrates.
Data are presented to illustrate the major patterns of current consumption, and therefore current environmental impact, and the trends in concentrate consumption in order to predict future impacts.
Results of the analyses of feed consumption are presented in following sections in Chapter 2 and in Appendices 2 and 3. Data on production and trade are presented in Chapter 3 and Appendix 4. Data on the proportions of total production and land areas used to provide feeds are presented in Chapter 4 and Appendix 5.
Note that quantities are expressed in commodity fresh weight 'as fed' terms. Data do not include pulses, 'other' concentrates or non-conventional feeds as defined in Section 2. Annual consumption calculated as three year averages for , , and ; growth rates calculated as annual compound percentage rates between averages.
Commodity weights are fresh 'as fed' weights; NB 'roots and tubers' includes some commodities with high moisture contents. Cereals including coarse grains maize, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, millet, buckwheat, triticale, fonio and quinoa , wheat and milled rice used for feed. Oilseeds including coconut, cotton, groundnut, hempseed, linseed, mustard, palm kernel, poopy seed, rape, safflower, sunflower, sesame, soyabean. Cakes and meals defined as in section 2.
Roots and tubers including cassava, dried cassava, cassava starch, flour and tapioca, potatoes and products as for cassava , sweet potatoes, taro, yams and cocoyams.
The contributions of cereals and brans to the total have remained constant over the recent 25 years, while oilseeds and oilcakes have increased markedly and roots and tubers declined over the period. Table 4 shows the annual percentage growth rates in the utilization of different types of feeds.
Trends in annual average growth rates of consumption of total concentrates in different world regions are illustrated in Table 5.
Growth rates have generally declined over recent periods in developed regions though not in Oceania dominated by Australia and New Zealand. Growth has been more consistent and more buoyant in developing regions, except for Sub-Saharan Africa and Central and Southern America in recent years. Growth has been particularly strong in all Asia regions. Analysis of FAO Agrostat data mean annual consumption for , on commodity fresh weight basis.
Brans are particularly important in Asian regions, where rice bran is a major feed resource. Changes in regional patterns of consumption follow the annual growth rate trends outlined above.
Developing regions in general have increased their share of feed utilization, a trend which will continue as growth in demand for livestock products continues in these regions.
The most significant changes in the composition of concentrates have included increases in the proportions of oilmeals used across all regions of the world, but particularly in WE, CSA, S Asia and SE Asia.
In NAM and WE there has been a shift in concentrate composition from cereals to oilseeds and meals, with relatively little change in other components. The relative importance of roots and tubers feeds has declined consistently across all regions. Concentrate feed quality has thus generally increased as total consumption has increased. World total amounts of the main specific feed commodities utilized are shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9 for cereals, oilmeals and roots and tubers respectively.
Amongst cereals, maize is the most important feed, comprising over half of total cereals. Barley, oats and sorghum utilization has recently declined.
Other cereals used in concentrate feeds, not listed in Table 7, include rye mill. In addition, small amounts of rice are fed in Asian regions, amounting to some mill. These form an insignificant proportion of cereal use. Groundnut and palm kernel meals are of lesser importance globally. In addition to the tabulated commodities, smaller amounts of meals and cakes of copra, hempseed, mustard, linseed and safflower are fed.
Fishmeal provides a further mill. Sweet potato consumption has almost doubled in the same period, mainly due to increased production in China. The relative importance of commodities within regions is illustrated in Figures 3, 4 and 5 for the major cereals, oilmeals and roots and tubers commodities data are presented in Appendix 2 Tables 9, 10 and Utilization of roots and tubers feeds differs strongly between regions.
Figure 3 Regional composition of cereals utilized for concentrate feeds, Figure 4 Regional composition of oilmeals utilized for concentrate feeds, Figure 5 Regional composition of roots and tubers utilized for concentrate feeds, Concentrate feeds generally form a higher proportion of diets of monogastric than of ruminant livestock.
Figure 6 illustrates global average diet compositions of different species reported by FAO Figure 6 Aggregate world composition of diets for different species of livestock after Wheeler et al ; in metabolisable energy equivalents. Diet compositions vary between species and regions of the world.
In developing countries, diets generally include less cereals and more by-products. Ruminant concentrate feeds include higher proportions of 'other concentrates'. Some feeding systems for fattening beef cattle use high proportions of coarse grains as straight concentrates for example barley in the UK but in most cases a wide variety of milling and agro-industrial by-products may be incorporated in finishing diets as in feedlot systems.
In developing countries, the proportion of cereals in concentrates fed to ruminants is very low. However, because of their large numbers and size, ruminant livestock actually consume roughly similar total quantities of concentrate feeds as pigs or poultry see Figure 7.
Figure 7 World average utilization of feeds by different livestock species after Wheeler et al , in metabolisable energy equivalents. Estimates of concentrate feed requirements have been made in this study for the farming systems and world regions classified by Sere These estimates have been based either on assumptions of per capita feed requirements for ruminants , or on product outputs and feed conversion efficiencies for non-ruminants.
This difference in approach was necessitated by the difficulties in estimation of feed efficiency for ruminant products across widely varying systems of production. Details of the assumptions required and the methods used are presented in Appendix 3.
Table 10 presents the estimated total concentrate feed requirements for the different farming systems and world regions, while Table 11 shows the consumption of concentrates by livestock species and outputs. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate a the comparative consumption of total concentrate feeds by farming systems and regions and b the consumption of concentrates for different livestock products.
Appendix 3, Tables 3 and 4 present the data on the proportions of total requirements attributable to the different livestock production systems and livestock species respectively. This may be compared with totals of million mt fresh weights derived from FAO statistics on feed use of mill. Estimates of total consumption are dependant on the assumptions of feed intake and feed efficiency shown in Appendix 3.
However, it may be noted that the relative or proportional requirements for feeds by the different systems, regions and species are not particularly sensitive to minor changes in assumptions on feed efficiencies and intakes, being mainly dependant on estimates of livestock populations and total outputs of products within systems and regions.
Thus the estimates of the proportional requirements shown in Appendix 3 Tables 3 and 4 are reasonably robust. Amongst the production systems, Landless Monogastric LLM systems pigs and poultry consume the most concentrates about one third of the total. These figures are similar to estimates made in the early s FAO , as reviewed in Section 2. Poultry egg production, Poultry meat production, Pig meat production:
5 Experts Weigh in on Cannabis Concentrates and How to Use Them
A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component removed. Typically, this will be the removal of water from a solution or . Equal parts art and science, the process of extracting cannabis concentrates takes on many forms. Browse a collection of the magnificent results here. Learn about live resin, a type of cannabis concentrate that retains the plant's original flavor and fragrance that other concentrates lack.